Posts Tagged ‘smtp’

How to check version of most used mail servers Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail

Wednesday, October 14th, 2020

How to check version of a Linux host's installed Mail server?

Most used mail servers Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail and usually you have to do a dpkg -l / rpm -qa or whatever package manager to get the package version. But sometimes the package is built to have a different naming convention from the actual installed MTA.

As recently I had to check on a Linux host what kind of version was the installed and used one to the SMTP, below is how to find conrete versions of Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail.
If none of the 4 is installed and something more cryptic like ssmtp is installed if another one is installed perhaps the best way would be to check with lsof -i :25 command and see  what process has binded and listens on TCP port 25.

mail-server-lsof-linux-screenshot-qmail-vpopmail

 

 

1. How to check Postfix exact mail server version

mail-server-exim-check-lsof-screenshot

Once you can find Postfix is the Network listening MTA, you might think you can simply use postfix -v however, but no …
Unlike many other applications, Postfix has no -v or –versions switch. But you can get the version information easily by using the postconf command as shown below:

root@server :~# postconf mail_version

postfix-show-version-postconf-linux

Other approach is to dump all postfix configuration settings (this is useful to get more info on how postfix is configured) and explicitly grep for the version.
 How to check version of a Linux host's installeded webserver?

root@server :~# postconf -d | grep mail_version

 

2. How to check Exim MTA running version ?

root@exim-mail :/ # exim -bV
Exim version 4.72 #1 built 13-Jul-2010 21:54:55
Copyright (c) University of Cambridge, 1995 – 2007
Berkeley DB: Sleepycat Software: Berkeley DB 4.3.29: (September 19, 2009)
Support for: crypteq iconv() Perl OpenSSL move_frozen_messages Content_Scanning DKIM Old_Demime
Lookups: lsearch wildlsearch nwildlsearch iplsearch cdb dbm dbmnz
Authenticators: cram_md5 plaintext spa
Routers: accept dnslookup ipliteral manualroute queryprogram redirect
Transports: appendfile/maildir/mailstore/mbx autoreply lmtp pipe smtp
Size of off_t: 8
OpenSSL compile-time version: OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
OpenSSL runtime version: OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
Configuration file is /etc/exim.conf

how-to-get-exim-version-on-gnu-linux-screenshot


3. How to check Sendmail Mail Transport Agent exact Mail version ?

Though sendmail is rarely used this days and it usually works mostly on obsolete old scrap hosts
or in some old fashioned conservative organizations such as Banks and Payment services providers, you might need to invertise it, just like the configuration m4 format complexity with its annoying macros, getting the version is also not straight forward:

# sendmail -d0.4 -bv root | grep Version
Version 8.14.4

Above commands should be working on most Linux distributions such as Debian / Ubuntu / Fedora / CentOS / SuSE and other Linux derivatives
 

4. How to check Qmail MTA version?

This is a bit of complicated question, as Qmail's base has not been significantly changed for years.
The latest published qmail package is qmail-1.03.tar.gz.  1.03 was released in 1998, Qmail is famous for its unbreakable security. The author of qmail  Daniel J. Bernstein is famous for writting Qmail to make the work installation and configuration of SMTP simple as of the time of writting sendmail was the defacto standard and sendmail was hard to configure.
Also sendmail was famous for a set of Security holes that got a lot of Sendmail MTA's on the Net got hacked. Thus the QMAIL was written as a more security-aware mail transport agent.

In contrast to sendmail, qmail has a modular architecture composed of mutually untrusting components; for instance, the SMTP listener component of qmail runs with different credentials from the queue manager or the SMTP sender. qmail was also implemented with a security-aware replacement to the C standard library, and as a result has not been vulnerable to stack and heap overflows, format string attacks, or temporary file race conditions.

The core qmail package has not been updated for many years. New features were initially provided by third party patches, from which the most important at the time were brought together in a single meta-patch set called netqmail.

The current version of netqmail is at 1.06 netqmail-1.06.tar.gz as of year 2020.

One possible way to get some info about installed qmail or components is to use the documentation look up command apropos

qmail:~# apropos qmail


or check the manual or at worst check for the installation source files that the person that installed the qmail used 🙂

A fun fact about qmail few might know is D. Bernstein offered in 1997 a US$500 reward for the first person to publish a verifiable security hole in the latest version of the software, for many years till 2005 no hole was found security researcher Georgi Guninski found an integer overflow in qmail. On 64-bit platforms, in default configurations with sufficient virtual memory, the delivery of huge amounts of data to certain qmail components may allow remote code execution. Bernstein disputes that this is a practical attack, arguing that no real-world deployment of qmail would be susceptible. Configuration of resource limits for qmail components mitigates the vulnerability.

On November 1, 2007, Bernstein raised the reward to US$1000. At a slide presentation the following day, Bernstein stated that there were 4 "known bugs" in the ten-year-old qmail-1.03, none of which were "security holes." He characterized the bug found by Guninski as a "potential overflow of an unchecked counter." "Fortunately, counter growth was limited by memory and thus by configuration, but this was pure luck.

5. Quick way to check the type of Mail server installed on Debian based Linux that doesn't have telnet installed


As you know simple telnet localhost 25 or a simple ps -ef could reveal at most times general information on the installed server. However there is another way to do it using package manager. by using embedded bash shell type type command like so:
 

# type -p sendmail |
xargs dpkg -S

type-x-bash-command-to-find-out-email-server-version-on-linux

Another hacky way to check whether exim, postfix or sendmail SMTP is installed is with:

hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "exim"|wc -l
1
hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "postfix"|wc -l
0
hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "sendmail"|wc -l
0

I guess there are nice hacks and ways to get versions, so if you're aware of any please share with me.
Enjoy !

Get daily E-Mail Reports statistics on postfix Linux mail server

Tuesday, July 14th, 2020

https://pc-freak.net/images/Postfix-email-server-logo.svg-1

I've had today a task at work to monitor a postfix mail send and received emails (MAIL FROM / RPCT TO) and get out a simple statistics on what kind of emails are coming and going out from the Postfix SMTP on a server?

Below is shortly explained how I did it plus you will learn how you can use something more advanced to get server mail count, delivery status, errors etc. daily.
 

1. Using a simple script to process /var/log/messages

For that I made a small script to do the trick, the script simply checks mail delivery logged information from /var/log/maillog process a bit sort and logs in a separate log daily.

#!/bin/sh
# Process /var/log/maillog extract from= and to= mails sort
# And log mails to $LOGF
# Author Georgi Georgiev 14.07.2020

DATE_FORM=$(date +'%m_%d_%y_%H_%M_%S_%h_%m');
LOG='/home/gge/mail_from_to-mails';
LOGF="$LOG.$DATE_FORM.log";
CUR_DATE=$(date +'%m_%d_%y_%T');
echo "Processing /var/log/maillog";
echo "Processing /var/log/maillog" > $LOGF;
echo >>$LOGF
echo "!!! $CUR_DATE # Sent MAIL FROM: addresses: !!!" >> $LOGF;
grep -E 'from=' /var/log/maillog|sed -e 's#=# #g'|awk '{ print $8 }'|sed -e 's#<# #g' -e 's#># #g' -e 's#\,##'|sort -rn|uniq >> $LOGF;

echo "!!! $CUR_DATE # Receive RCPT TO: addresses !!!" >>$LOGF;
grep -E 'to=' /var/log/maillog|sed -e 's#=# #g'|awk '{ print $8 }'|sed -e 's#<# #g' -e 's#># #g' -e 's#\,##'|sort -rn|uniq >> $LOGF;


You can get a copy of the mail_from_to_collect_mails_postfix.sh script here.

I've set the script to run via a crond scheduled job once early in the mornthing and I'll leave it like that for 5 days or so to get a good idea on what are the mailboxes that are receiving incoming mail.

The cron I've set to use is as follows:

# crontab -u root -l 
05 03 * * *     sh /home/gge/mail_from_to.sh >/dev/null 2>&1

 

This will be necessery later for a Email Server planned migration to relay its mail via another MTA host.

 

2. Getting More Robust Postifx Mail Statistics from logs


My little script is of course far from best solution to get postfix mail statistics from logs.

If you want something more professional and you need to have a daily report on what mails sent to mail server and mails sent from the MTA to give you information about the Email delivery queue status, number of successful and failed emails from a mail sender / recipient and a whole bunch of useful info you can use something more advanced such as pflogsumm perl script to get daily / weekly monthly mail delivery statistics.

What can pflogsumm do for you ?

 

 

Pflogsumm is a log analyzer/summarizer for the Postfix MTA. It is
designed to provide an overview of Postfix activity, with just enough
detail to give the administrator a “heads up” for potential trouble
spots and fixing any SMTP and email related issues.

Pflogsumm generates summaries and, in some cases, detailed reports of
mail server traffic volumes rejected and bounced email and server
warnings, errors, and panics.

At the time of writting this article it is living on jimsun.linxnet.com just in case if pflogsumm.pl's official download location disappears at some time in future here is pflogsumm-1.1.3.tar.gz mirror stored on pc-freak.net

– Install pflogsumm

Use of pflogsumm is pretty straight forward, you download unarchive the script to some location such as /usr/local/bin/pflogsumm.pl  add the script executable flag and you run it to create a Postfix Mail Log statistics report for you

wget http://jimsun.linxnet.com/downloads/pflogsumm-1.1.3.tar.gz -O /usr/local/src/pflogsumm-1.1.3.tar.gz

 

# mkdir -p /usr/local/src/
# cd /usr/local/src/
# tar -zxvf pflogsumm-1.1.3.tar.gz
# cd pflogsumm-1.1.3/

# mv /usr/local/pflogsumm-1.1.3/pflogsumm.pl /usr/local/bin/pflogsumm
# chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/pflogsumm


That's all, assuming you have perl installed on the system with some standard modules, we're now good to go: 

To give it a test report to the command line:

# /usr/local/bin/pflogsumm -d today /var/log/maillog

pflogsumm-log-summary-screenshot-linux-received-forwarded-bounced-rejected

To generate mail server use report and launch to some email of choice do:

# /usr/local/bin/pflogsumm -d today /var/log/maillog | mail -s Mailstats your-mail@your-domain.com


To make pflogsumm report everyday various interesting stuff such as (message deferrals, message bounce, details, smtp delivery failures, fatal errors, recipients by message size etc. add some cronjob like below to the server:

# /usr/sbin/pflogsumm -d yesterday /var/log/maillog | mail -s Mailstats | mail -s Mailstats your-mail@your-domain.com

If you need a GUI graphical mail monitoring in a Web Browser, you will need to install a webserver with a perl / cgi support,  RRDTools and MailGraph.

linux-monitoring-mail-server-with-mailgraph.cgi

Install Sendmail mail server on Debian GNU / Linux

Sunday, March 31st, 2013

Installing sendmail on Debian Linux is something not so common these days. As sendmail has been overshadowed by his competitors Exim and Postfix. By default Debian Linux comes with Exim (light) installed as Exim is tiny and perfectly suitable for dealing with small and mid-sized SMTP needs. The reason why sendmail has been moved out by its competitors over the last 15 years is sendmail configuration is one big hell and besides that sendmail has been well known for its many security remote exploit holes – making it a famous target for crackers. Well anyways in some cases sendmail is necessary to install especially if you have a client which wants to have it set up. In this short article I will show how very basic sendmail installation on Debian host is done.

 blackstar:~# apt-get install sendmail-bin sensible-mda

Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information… Done

The following extra packages will be installed:
  sendmail-base sendmail-cf sensible-mda
Suggested packages:
  sendmail-doc logcheck resolvconf sasl2-bin
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  exim4 exim4-base exim4-config exim4-daemon-light sa-exim task-mail-server
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  sendmail-base sendmail-bin sendmail-cf
0 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 6 to remove and 26 not upgraded.
Need to get 1,626 kB of archives.
After this operation, 592 kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
Get:1 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-base all 8.14.4-2.1 [362 kB]
Get:2 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-cf all 8.14.4-2.1 [300 kB]
Get:3 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-bin i386 8.14.4-2.1 [964 kB]
Fetched 1,626 kB in 0s (3,057 kB/s)  
(Reading database … 199577 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing task-mail-server …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-base.
(Reading database … 199577 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking sendmail-base (from …/sendmail-base_8.14.4-2.1_all.deb) …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-cf.
Unpacking sendmail-cf (from …/sendmail-cf_8.14.4-2.1_all.deb) …
Processing triggers for man-db …
(Reading database … 199939 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing sa-exim …
[….] Reloading exim4 configuration files:invoke-rc.d: initscript exim4, action "reload" failed.
dpkg: exim4-config: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4-base depends on exim4-config (>= 4.30) | exim4-config-2; however:
  Package exim4-config is to be removed.
  Package exim4-config-2 is not installed.
  Package exim4-config which provides exim4-config-2 is to be removed.
 exim4-base depends on exim4-config (>= 4.30) | exim4-config-2; however:
  Package exim4-config is to be removed.
  Package exim4-config-2 is not installed.
  Package exim4-config which provides exim4-config-2 is to be removed.

Removing exim4-config …
dpkg: exim4-daemon-light: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4 depends on exim4-daemon-light | exim4-daemon-heavy | exim4-daemon-custom; however:
  Package exim4-daemon-light is to be removed.
  Package exim4-daemon-heavy is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-custom is not installed.
 bsd-mailx depends on default-mta | mail-transport-agent; however:
  Package default-mta is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides default-mta is to be removed.
  Package mail-transport-agent is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides mail-transport-agent is to be removed.
 bsd-mailx depends on default-mta | mail-transport-agent; however:
  Package default-mta is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides default-mta is to be removed.
  Package mail-transport-agent is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides mail-transport-agent is to be removed.

Removing exim4-daemon-light …
[ ok ] Stopping MTA:.
ALERT: exim paniclog /var/log/exim4/paniclog has non-zero size, mail system possibly broken
dpkg: exim4-base: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4 depends on exim4-base (>= 4.80).

Removing exim4-base …
Processing triggers for man-db …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-bin.
(Reading database … 199786 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking sendmail-bin (from …/sendmail-bin_8.14.4-2.1_i386.deb) …
Processing triggers for man-db …
Setting up sendmail-base (8.14.4-2.1) …
adduser: Warning: The home directory `/var/lib/sendmail' does not belong to the user you are currently creating.
Setting up sendmail-cf (8.14.4-2.1) …
Setting up sendmail-bin (8.14.4-2.1) …
update-rc.d: warning: default stop runlevel arguments (0 1 6) do not match sendmail Default-Stop values (1)
update-alternatives: using /usr/lib/sm.bin/sendmail to provide /usr/sbin/sendmail-mta (sendmail-mta) in auto mode
update-alternatives: using /usr/lib/sm.bin/sendmail to provide /usr/sbin/sendmail-msp (sendmail-msp) in auto mode
update-alternatives: warning: not replacing /usr/share/man/man8/sendmail.8.gz with a link

You are doing a new install, or have erased /etc/mail/sendmail.mc.
If you've accidentaly erased /etc/mail/sendmail.mc, check /var/backups.

I am creating a safe, default sendmail.mc for you and you can
run sendmailconfig later if you need to change the defaults.

[ ok ] Stopping Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.
Updating sendmail environment …
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Could not open /etc/mail/databases(No such file or directory), creating it.
Could not open /etc/mail/sendmail.mc(No such file or directory)
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Turning off Host Status collection
Could not open /etc/mail/databases(No such file or directory), creating it.
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…

Checking filesystem, this may take some time – it will not hang!
  …   Done.
 
Checking for installed MDAs…
Adding link for newly extant program (mail.local)
Adding link for newly extant program (procmail)
sasl2-bin not installed, not configuring sendmail support.

To enable sendmail SASL2 support at a later date, invoke "/usr/share/sendmail/update_auth"

 
Creating/Updating SSL(for TLS) information
Creating /etc/mail/tls/starttls.m4…
Creating SSL certificates for sendmail.
Generating DSA parameters, 2048 bit long prime
This could take some time
…+………………..+.+..+..+++
..+.+………….+.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
………………..+++
…………………+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

*** *** *** WARNING *** WARNING *** WARNING *** WARNING *** *** ***

Everything you need to support STARTTLS (encrypted mail transmission
and user authentication via certificates) is installed and configured
but is *NOT* being used.

To enable sendmail to use STARTTLS, you need to:
1) Add this line to /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and optionally
   to /etc/mail/submit.mc:
  include(`/etc/mail/tls/starttls.m4')dnl
2) Run sendmailconfig
3) Restart sendmail

 
Updating /etc/hosts.allow, adding "sendmail: all".

Please edit /etc/hosts.allow and check the rules location to
make sure your security measures have not been overridden –
it is common to move the sendmail:all line to the *end* of
the file, so your more selective rules take precedence.
Checking {sendmail,submit}.mc and related databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/Makefile…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Disabling HOST statistics file(/var/lib/sendmail/host_status).
Creating /etc/mail/sendmail.cf…
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
 
Creating /etc/mail/submit.cf…
Informational: confCR_FILE file empty: /etc/mail/relay-domains
Warning: confCT_FILE source file not found: /etc/mail/trusted-users
 it was created
Informational: confCT_FILE file empty: /etc/mail/trusted-users
Warning: confCW_FILE source file not found: /etc/mail/local-host-names
 it was created
Warning: access_db source file not found: /etc/mail/access
 it was created
Updating /etc/mail/access…
Linking /etc/aliases to /etc/mail/aliases
Updating /etc/mail/aliases…

WARNING: local host name (blackstar) is not qualified; see cf/README: WHO AM I?
/etc/mail/aliases: 13 aliases, longest 10 bytes, 145 bytes total
 
Warning: 3 database(s) sources
    were not found, (but were created)
    please investigate.
 
Warning: These messages were issued while creating sendmail.cf
    make sure they are benign before starting sendmail!
 
Errors in generating sendmail.cf
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
 
[ ok ] Starting Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.
(Reading database … 199837 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing exim4 …
 

Right after packages gets installed it is good idea to get rid of any remains of previous exim SMTP install, run;

blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-base
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-config
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-daemon-light
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge sa-exim

blackstar:~# grep -i sendmail /etc/passwd
smmta:x:121:128:Mail Transfer Agent,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
smmsp:x:124:129:Mail Submission Program,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
blackstar:~# grep -i -E "smmta|smmsp" /etc/passwd
smmta:x:121:128:Mail Transfer Agent,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
smmsp:x:124:129:Mail Submission Program,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false

Sendmail install does create two new users smmta and smmsp in /etc/passwd and /etc/group

As you see from earlier apt-get output sendmail is provided on Debian via 4 packs:

root@blackstar:~# dpkg -l |grep -i sendmail
ii  libmail-sendmail-perl                0.79.16-1                          all          Send email from a perl script
ii  sendmail-base                        8.14.4-2.1                         all          powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent
ii  sendmail-bin                         8.14.4-2.1                         i386         powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent
ii  sendmail-cf                          8.14.4-2.1                         all          powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent

libmail-sendmail-perl installs a perl module (class)  /usr/share/perl5/Mail/Sendmail.pm.

sendmail-bin contains main sendmail components binary files, cron bindings related to sendmail, some manual pages and creates structure necessary for sendmail to process email queue. sendmail-cf provides a multitude of sendmail configurations in macroses and few documentation files on the macros configuration. All sendmail configuration macros are stored in /usr/share/sendmail/* – there are pleny of .m4 configs so for people who never installed sendmail it is really confusing.

sendmail-base package contains some bindings on how to to log rotate sendmail log files, few more sendmail binaries who deal with sendmail architecture, few files whether sendmail is run via PPP or DHCP connection, some documentation and example files. Sendmail documentation is installed in /usr/share/doc/sendmail*,  unfortunately documentation there is scarce so for extended documentation it is good to check Sendmail's Official site

To check if sendmail is running you should have it visible  in the list of running processes;

root@blackstar:~# ps xa|grep sendmail|grep -v grep
  468 ?        Ss     0:00 sendmail: MTA: accepting connections        

Further on it should be accepting connections on localhost / 25, i.e.

root@blackstar:~# telnet localhost 25
Trying ::1...
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 blackstar ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.4/8.14.4/Debian-2.1; Sat, 30 Mar 2013 19:09:47 +0200; (No UCE/UBE) logging access from: localhost(OK)-localhost [127.0.0.1] ^]
telnet> quit
 

 

Sendmail's configuration is being generated using a macro file using a macro processor via m4 command. There are few files, used as a basis for generation the final m4 most important of course is /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and sendmail.cf  –  /etc/mail/sendmail.cf, sendmail.mc after processed with the mambo-jambo with m4 generates the complex and about 15 times larger by size sendmail.cf.
All configs related to generating files instructing how sendmail will operate are stored in /etc/mail;

blackstar:~#  ls -1
access
access.db
address.resolve
aliases
aliases.db
databases
helpfile
local-host-names
m4
Makefile
peers
sasl
sendmail.cf
sendmail.cf.errors
sendmail.conf
sendmail.mc
service.switch
service.switch-nodns
smrsh
spamassassin
submit.cf
submit.mc
tls

sendmail.cf.errors
– contains errors during processing of macros config files.

 

root@blackstar:/etc/mail# cat sendmail.cf.errors
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()

This errors, are not fatal as sendmail.cf is there and sendmail is from now on ready to send mails via localhost.

To check if sendmail delivers mails onwards, use mail cmd;
 

hipo@blackstar:~$ mail -s "testing" test@pc-freak.net
this is a simple test email
Do you get it?
.
Cc:

To see all is fine with mail delivery check out /var/log/mail.log

blackstar:~# tail -f /var/log/mail/log
Mar 30 21:23:05 blackstar sm-msp-queue[1495]: unable to qualify my own domain name (blackstar) -- using short name
Mar 30 21:23:09 blackstar sm-mta[1499]: STARTTLS=client, relay=mail.pc-freak.net., version=TLSv1/SSLv3, verify=FAIL, cipher=AES256-SHA, bits=256/256
Mar 30 21:23:11 blackstar sm-mta[1524]: r2UJN8x2001524: localhost [127.0.0.1] did not issue MAIL/EXPN/VRFY/ETRN during connection to MTA-v4
Mar 30 21:23:13 blackstar sm-mta[1499]: r2UJKwqR001412: to=<hipo@pc-freak.net>, ctladdr=<root@blackstar> (0/0), delay=00:02:15, xdelay=00:00:10, mailer=esmtp, pri=210313, relay=mail.pc-freak.net. [83.228.93.76], dsn=2.0.0, stat=Sent (ok 1364671405 qp 7492)
Mar 30 21:24:28 blackstar sendmail[1532]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry
Mar 30 21:27:16 blackstar sendmail[1633]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry

As you see there is an error in mail.log
 

blackstar sendmail[1532]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry


This is because blackstar is not assigned as a a host recognized to 127.0.0.1 in /etc/hosts. To solve it on my host I had to change /etc/hosts which looked like so:

blackstar:~# cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1    localhost
127.0.1.1    blackstar
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

to

blackstar:~# vim /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1    localhost localhost.localdomain blackstar
127.0.1.1    blackstar

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
 

 

Then restart sendmail to reread /etc/hosts
 

root@blackstar:/etc/mail# /etc/init.d/sendmail restart
[ ok ] Restarting Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.

 

How to change hostname in Postfix SMTP on Debian Linux

Tuesday, March 19th, 2013

Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and see for line;

myhostname =

Define;

myhostname = YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM
 

Also make sure it YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM is defined as first one (in case of multiple ones) to mydestination =

mydestination = YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM server1-bla-bla.com

Finally restart Exim;

debian:~# /etc/init.d/postfix restart
Stopping Postfix Mail Transport Agent: postfix.
Starting Postfix Mail Transport Agent: postfix.
 

How to change Exim mail server hostname on Debian Linux

Tuesday, March 19th, 2013

If you have to configure Exim mail server to act as RELAY Forwarding SMTP through another mail server and nomatter, you set up in dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config command a hostname still connecting to localhost port 25 shows a hostname identical as configured hostname for server. You will have to explicitly instruct exim to desired hostname like so:

debian:~# cp -rpf /etc/exim4/exim4.conf.template /etc/exim4/exim4.conf

Then edit /etc/exim4/exim4.conf

Add somewhere in beginning of config file

primary_hostname = DESIRED_HOSTNAME.COM

To make exim load new settings, restart SMTP:

debian:~# /etc/init.d/exim4 restart

Stopping MTA for restart: exim4_listener.
Restarting MTA: exim4.
 

debian:~# telnet localhost 25
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 DESIRED_HOSTNAME.COM ESMTP Exim 4.72 Tue, 19 Mar 2013 19:02:52 +0000
^]
telnet> quit
Connection closed.

 

How to configure mail server forwarding on Postfix – Email forwarding from one Postfix SMTP to another

Friday, March 1st, 2013

I needed to configure mail forwarding from one Postfix mail server with a correct MX and PTR record to another one for a reason the second mail server has filtered port 25, because of ISP policy. As it is recommended in such situations, I've configured mail forwarding from postfix host1 to host2 to use (submission) port number 587 which general purpose is for exactly situations like this. Mail forwarding is done via a simple /etc/postfix/main.cf, /usr/local/etc/postfix/main.cf (depending where Postfix is installed).

Thus as my postfix configs are in /etc/postfix, I edited /etc/postfix/main.cf on forwarding Postfix mail server, where mail comes in (host1) and added line:

relayhost = [123.123.123.123]:587

Where 123.123.123.123 is IP address of host2

To load settings I had to do the usual postfix restart

postfix# /etc/rc.d/postfix restart

postfix/postfix-script: stopping the Postfix mail system
postfix/postfix-script: starting the Postfix mail system

On host2 – to which mail is forwarded, I had to add access for host1 to relay mail  in /etc/postfix/main.cf had to include:

mynetworks = 124.124.124.124

and 124.124.124.124 is IP of host1

One note to make is if mynetworks is not defined to host of host1 mail server, you will get in /var/log/maillog error:

Relay access denied (in reply to RCPT TO command))

Here is paste chunk from /var/log/maillog

Mar  1 08:57:01 host1 postfix/smtp[95236]: 88C8B11F911:
                    to=<amaderit.for.brother+caf_=amaderit2013FINAL=forward-host.org@gmail.com>, relay=24.129.36.212[24.129.36.212]:587, delay=0.54,
                    delays=0.01/0/0.44/0.09, dsn=5.7.1, status=bounced (host 24.129.36.212[24.129.36.212] said: 554 5.7.1
                    <amaderit.for.brother+caf_=amaderit2013FINAL=forward-host.org@gmail.com>: Relay access denied (in reply to RCPT TO command))

How to change default port 25 to 995 or any other on Postfix mail server

Wednesday, February 27th, 2013

If you need to change default mail delivery port of Postfix mail server from 25 to any other port lets say to 995. Here is how:

Edit /etc/postfix/master.cf  – a small note to make here is master.cf is located on same location on mostly all Linux distributions as well as FreeBSD.

Find line with:

smtp      inet  n       –       n       –       –       smtpd

Change smtp – which is actually a reference for port 25 to whatever port you need – i.e. 995 After change line should look like:

995      inet  n       –       n       –       –       smtpd

Save config file and restart postfix to load new settings:

# /etc/rc.d/postfix restart
postfix/postfix-script: stopping the Postfix mail system
postfix/postfix-script: starting the Postfix mail system

Fixing QMAIL mail server SMTP auto-configure issues in Thunderbird and other mail IMAP / POP3 mobile clients

Friday, July 13th, 2012

One of the QMAIL mail servers, setup-uped on a Debian host has been creating some auto configuration issues. Every-time a new mail user tries to use the embedded Thunderbird client auto configuration, the auto config fails leaving the client unable to use his Mailbox through POP3 or IMAP protocols.

Since about 2 years Thunderbird and many other modern pop3 and imap mail desktop and mobile clients are by default using the auto configuration and hence it was unthinkable to manually change settings for new clients with the QMAIl install; Besides that most of the Office users are always confused, whether they have to manually change SMTP or POP3 host for a server.

Below is a screenshot displaying the warning during email auto-configuration:

Thunderbird new Mail account setup auto config warning SMTP not OKThe orange color in the button for the newly auto-detected smtp.mail-domain.com indicates, something is not right with the SMTP host.

Obviously, something was wrong with smtp.mail-domain.com, hence I checked where smtp.mail.domain.com resolves with host command. What I found was actually smtp.mail-domain.com Active ( A ) DNS records was pointing to an IP address, our company previously used for the mail server. At present time the correct mail server host name is mx.mail-domain.com and the QMAIL installation on mx.soccerfame.com is configured to be the actual SMTP server.

By default Thunderbird and many other POP3, IMAP mail clients, however automatically assume the default SMTP host for a mail server is to be configured under a host name smtp.mail-domain.com. This is really strange, especially when the primary MX record for mail-domain.com domain is pointing to mx.mail-domain.com, e.g.:

qmail:~# host -t MX mail-domain.com
soccerfame.com mail is handled by 10 mx.mail-domain.com.
soccerfame.com mail is handled by 20 mail.mail-domain.com.
soccerfame.com mail is handled by 30 mail-domain.com.

The whole warning was caused due to the fact mx.mail-domain.com was resolving to an IP like xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, whether smtp.mail-domain.com was resolving to yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy

Both xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx and yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy hosts were configured to have a different qmail SMTP host i.e.:

The server under IP xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx – (mx.mail-domain.com) was configured in /var/qmail/control/me to be mx.mail-domain.com and the other old one yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy – (mail.mail-domain.com) had (mail.mail-domain.com) in /var/qmail/control/me

As smtp.mail-domain.com was actually being still resolved to mail.mail-domain.com, the EMAILs were improperly trying to be sent with a configured DNS hostname of smtp.mail-domain.com, where the actual one on the server was mail.mail-domain

It took, me about an hour of pondering what is causing the oddities until I got the here explained issue. As the DNS recors for the domain the sample mail-domain.com were handled by Godaddy, to fix the mess, I logged in to Godaddy and;

a) deleted – DNS record for smtp.mail-domain.com.
b) Created new CNAME record for smtp.mail-domain.com to be a domain alias for mx.soccerfame.com

A few minutes, afterwards I tried configuring once again the same email account in Thunderbird and this time both imap.mail-domain.com and smtp.mail-domain.com turned green; indicating everything is configured fine.

To be 100% sure all is working fine I first fetched, all email via the IMAP protocol without hassles and onwards sent a test email to my Gmail account; thanksfully the sent email was delivered to Gmail indicating both Get Mail and Send Mail functions worked now fine.

Thunderbird icedove new mail account setup auto config Okay