Posts Tagged ‘Select’

Install certbot on Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Fedora Linux 10 / Generate and use Apache / Nginx SSL Letsencrypt certificates

Monday, December 21st, 2020

Reading Time: 9minutes

letsencrypt certbot install on any linux distribution with apache or nginx webserver howto</a><p> Let's Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority brought to you by the nonprofit <a data-cke-saved-href=
Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). ISRG group gave initiative with the goal to "encrypt the internet", i.e. offer free alternative to the overpriced domani registrer sold certificates with the goal to make more people offer SSL / TSL Free secured connection line on their websites. 
ISRG group supported Letsencrypt non-profit certificate authority actrively by Internet industry standard giants such as Mozilla, Cisco, EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation),  Facebook, Google Chrome, Amazon AWS, OVH Cloud, Redhat, VMWare, Github and many many of the leading companies in IT.

Letsencrpyt is aimed at automating the process designed to overcome manual creation, validation, signing, installation, and renewal of certificates for secure websites. I.e. you don't have to manually write on console complicated openssl command lines with passing on Certificate CSR /  KEY / PEM files etc and generate Self-Signed Untrusted Authority Certificates (noted in my previous article How to generate Self-Signed SSL Certificates with openssl or use similar process to pay money generate secret key and submit the key to third party authority through a their website webadmin  interface in order to Generate SSL brought by Godaddy or Other Certificate Authority.

But of course as you can guess there are downsides as you submit your private key automatically via letsencrypt set of SSL certificate automation domain scripts to a third party Certificate Authority which is at Letsencrypt.org. A security intrusion in their private key store servers might mean a catastrophy for your data as malicious stealer might be able to decrypt your data with some additional effort and see in plain text what is talking to your Apache / Nginx or Mail Server nevertheless the cert. Hence for a high standards such as PCI environments Letsencrypt as well as for the paranoid security freak admins,  who don't trust the mainstream letsencrypt is definitely not a choice. Anyways for most small and midsized businesses who doesn't hold too much of a top secret data and want a moderate level of security Letsencrypt is a great opportunity to try. But enough talk, lets get down to business.

How to install and use certbot on Debian GNU / Linux 10 Buster?
Certbot is not available from the Debian software repositories by default, but it’s possible to configure the buster-backports repository in your /etc/apt/sources.list file to allow you to install a backport of the Certbot software with APT tool.
 

1. Install certbot on Debian / Ubuntu Linux

 

root@webserver:/etc/apt# tail -n 1 /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian buster-backports main


If not there append the repositories to file:

 

  • Install certbot-nginx certbot-apache deb packages

root@webserver:/ # echo 'deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian buster-backports main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list

 

  • Install certbot-nginx certbot-apache deb packages

root@webserver:/ # apt update
root@webserver:/ # apt install certbot python-certbot-nginx python3-certbot-apache python-certbot-nginx-doc


This will install the /usr/bin/certbot python executable script which is used to register / renew / revoke / delete your domains certificates.
 

2. Install letsencrypt certbot client on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora and other Linux Distributions

 


For RPM based distributions and other Linux distributions you will have to install snap package (if not already installed) and use snap command :

 

 

[root@centos ~ :] # yum install snapd
systemctl enable –now snapd.socket

To enable classic snap support, enter the following to create a symbolic link between

[root@centos ~ :] # ln -s /var/lib/snapd/snap /snap

snap command lets you install, configure, refresh and remove snaps.  Snaps are packages that work across many different Linux distributions, enabling secure delivery and operation of the latest apps and utilities.

[root@centos ~ :] # snap install core; sudo snap refresh core

Logout from console or Xsession to make the snap update its $PATH definitions.

Then use snap universal distro certbot classic package

 [root@centos ~ :] # snap install –classic certbot
[root@centos ~ :] # ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot
 

 

If you're having an XOrg server access on the RHEL / CentOS via Xming or other type of Xemulator you might check out also the snap-store as it contains a multitude of packages installable which are not usually available in RPM distros.

 [root@centos ~ :] # snap install snap-store


how-to-install-snap-applications-on-centos-rhel-linux-snap-store

snap-store is a powerful and via it you can install many non easily installable stuff on Linux such as eclipse famous development IDE, notepad++ , Discord, the so favourite for the Quality Assurance guy Protocol tester Postman etc.

  • Installing certbot to any distribution via acme.sh script

Another often preferred solution to Universally deploy  and upgrade an existing LetsEncrypt program to any Linux distribution (e.g. RHEL / CentOS / Fedora etc.) is the acme.sh script. To install acme you have to clone the repository and run the script with –install

P.S. If you don't have git installed yet do

root@webserver:/ # apt-get install –yes git


and then the usual git clone to fetch it at your side

# cd /root
# git clone https://github.com/acmesh-official/acme.sh
Cloning into 'acme.sh'…
remote: Enumerating objects: 71, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (71/71), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (53/53), done.
remote: Total 12475 (delta 39), reused 38 (delta 18), pack-reused 12404
Receiving objects: 100% (12475/12475), 4.79 MiB | 6.66 MiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (7444/7444), done.

# sh acme.sh –install


To later upgrade acme.sh to latest you can do

# sh acme.sh –upgrade


In order to renew a concrete existing letsencrypt certificiate

# sh acme.sh –renew domainname.com


To renew all certificates using acme.sh script

# ./acme.sh –renew-all

 

3. Generate Apache or NGINX Free SSL / TLS Certificate with certbot tool

Now lets generate a certificate for a domain running on Apache Webserver with a Website WebRoot directory /home/phpdev/public/www

 

root@webserver:/ # certbot –apache –webroot -w /home/phpdev/public/www/ -d your-domain-name.com -d your-domain-name.com

root@webserver:/ # certbot certonly –webroot -w /home/phpdev/public/www/ -d your-domain-name.com -d other-domain-name.com


As you see all the domains for which you will need to generate are passed on with -d option.

Once certificates are properly generated you can test it in a browser and once you're sure they work as expected usually you can sleep safe for the next 3 months ( 90 days) which is the default for TSL / SSL Letsencrypt certificates the reason behind of course is security.

 

4. Enable freshly generated letsencrypt SSL certificate in Nginx VirtualHost config

Go to your nginx VirtualHost configuration (i.e. /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro ) and inside chunk of config add after location { … } – 443 TCP Port SSL listener (as in shown in bolded configuration)
 

server {

….
   location ~ \.php$ {
      include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
##      fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.3-fpm.sock;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/share/phpmyadmin$fastcgi_script_name;
   }
 

 

 

    listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
    include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem; # managed by Certbot

 

5. Enable new generated letsencrypt SSL certificate in Apache VirtualHost


In /etc/apache2/{sites-available,sites-enabled}/your-domain.com-ssl.conf you should have as a minimum a configuration setup like below:
 

 

NameVirtualHost *:443<VirtualHost 123.123.123.12:443>
    ServerAdmin hipo@domain.com
    ServerName pc-freak.net
    ServerAlias www.your-domain.com wwww.your-domain.com your-domain.com
 
    HostnameLookups off
    DocumentRoot /var/www
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php index.html.var

 

 

CheckSpelling on
SSLEngine on

    <Directory />
        Options FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
        ##Order allow,deny
        ##allow from all
        Require all granted
    </Directory>
    <Directory /var/www>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride All
##      Order allow,deny
##      allow from all
Require all granted
    </Directory>

Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/your-domain.com/fullchain.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/your-domain.com/privkey.pem
</VirtualHost>

 

6. Simulate a certificate regenerate with –dry-run

Soon before the 90 days period expiry approaches, it is a good idea to test how all installed Nginx webserver certficiates will be renewed and whether any issues are expected this can be done with the –dry-run option.

root@webserver:/ # certbot renew –dry-run

 

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates below have not been saved.)

Congratulations, all renewals succeeded. The following certs have been renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/adzone.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/cdn.natsr.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/natsr.pro-0001/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/natsr.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.natsr.pro/fullchain.pem (success)
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates above have not been saved.)
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

 

7. Renew a certificate from a multiple installed certificate list

In some time when you need to renew letsencrypt domain certificates you can list them and choose manually which one you want to renew.

root@webserver:/ #certbot –force-renewal
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

How would you like to authenticate and install certificates?
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
1: Apache Web Server plugin (apache)
2: Nginx Web Server plugin (nginx)
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): 2
Plugins selected: Authenticator nginx, Installer nginx

Which names would you like to activate HTTPS for?
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
1: adzone.pro
2: mail.adzone.pro
3: phpmyadmin.adzone.pro
4: www.adzone.pro
5: natsr.pro
6: cdn.natsr.pro
7: www.natsr.pro
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Select the appropriate numbers separated by commas and/or spaces, or leave input
blank to select all options shown (Enter 'c' to cancel): 3
Renewing an existing certificate
Deploying Certificate to VirtualHost /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro

Please choose whether or not to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, removing HTTP access.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
1: No redirect – Make no further changes to the webserver configuration.
2: Redirect – Make all requests redirect to secure HTTPS access. Choose this for
new sites, or if you're confident your site works on HTTPS. You can undo this
change by editing your web server's configuration.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): 2
Redirecting all traffic on port 80 to ssl in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Your existing certificate has been successfully renewed, and the new certificate
has been installed.

The new certificate covers the following domains: https://phpmyadmin.adzone.pro

You should test your configuration at:
https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=phpmyadmin.adzone.pro
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 – Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem

   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2021-03-21. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again
   with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of
   your certificates, run "certbot renew"
 – If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

 

8. Renew all present SSL certificates

root@webserver:/ #certbot renew

Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/www.natsr.pro.conf
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Cert not yet due for renewal

 

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

The following certs are not due for renewal yet:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/adzone.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-03-01 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/cdn.natsr.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-02-28 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-02-28 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/natsr.pro-0001/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-03-01 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/natsr.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-02-25 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/phpmyadmin.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-03-21 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.adzone.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-02-28 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.natsr.pro/fullchain.pem expires on 2021-03-01 (skipped)
No renewals were attempted.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

 

 

9. Renew all existing server certificates from a cron job


The certbot package will install a script under /etc/cron.d/certbot to be run that will attempt every 12 hours however from my experience
often this script is not going to work, the script looks similar to below:

# Upgrade all existing SSL certbot machine certificates

 

0 */12 * * * root test -x /usr/bin/certbot -a \! -d /run/systemd/system && perl -e 'sleep int(rand(43200))' && certbot -q renew

Another approach to renew all installed certificates if you want to have a specific options and keep log of what happened is using a tiny shell script like this:

 

10. Auto renew installed SSL / TSL Certbot certificates with a bash loop over all present certificates

#!/bin/sh
# update SSL certificates
# prints from 1 to 104 (according to each certbot generated certificate and triggers rewew and logs what happened to log file
# an ugly hack for certbot certificate renew
for i in $(seq 1 104); do echo "Updating $i SSL Cert" | tee -a /root/certificate-update.log; yes "$i" | certbot –force-renewal | tee -a /root/certificate-update.log 2>&1; sleep 5; done

Note: The seq 1 104 is the range depends on the count of installed SSL certificates you have installed on the machine, that can be seen and set the proper value according to your case when you run one time certbot –force-renewal.
 

How to Configure Nginx as a Reverse Proxy Load Balancer on Debian, CentOS, RHEL Linux

Monday, December 14th, 2020

Reading Time: 8minutes

set-up-nginx-reverse-proxy-howto-linux-logo

What is reverse Proxy?

Reverse Proxy (RP) is a Proxy server which routes all incoming traffic to secondary Webserver situated behind the Reverse Proxy site.

Then all incoming replies from secondary webserver (which is not visible) from the internet gets routed back to Reverse Proxy service. The result is it seems like all incoming and outgoing HTTP requests are served from Reverse Proxy host where in reality, reverse proxy host just does traffic redirection. Problem with reverse proxies is it is one more point of failure the good side of it can protect and route only certain traffic to your webserver, preventing the behind reverse proxy located server from crackers malicious HTTP requests.

Treverse proxy, which accepts all traffic and forwards it to a specific resource, like a server or container.  Earlier I've blogged on how to create Apache reverse Proxy to Tomcat.
Having a reverse proxy with apache is a classical scenarios however as NGINX is taking lead slowly and overthrowing apache's use due to its easiness to configure, its high reliability and less consumption of resources.


One of most common use of Reverse Proxy is to use it as a software Load Balancer for traffic towards another webserver or directly to a backend server. Using RP as a to mitigate DDoS attacks from hacked computers Bot nets (coming from a network range) is very common Anti-DDoS protection measure.
With the bloom of VM and Contrainerizations technology such as docker. And the trend to switch services towards micro-services, often reverse proxy is used to seamessly redirect incoming requests traff to multiple separate OS docker running containers etc.


Some of the other security pros of using a Reverse proxy that could be pointed are:

  • Restrict access to locations that may be obvious targets for brute-force attacks, reducing the effectiveness of DDOS attacks by limiting the number of connections and the download rate per IP address. 
  • Cache pre-rendered versions of popular pages to speed up page load times.
  • Interfere with other unwanted traffic when needed.

 


what-is-reverse-proxy-explained-proxying-tubes

 

1. Install nginx webserver


Assuming you have a Debian at hand as an OS which will be used for Nginx RP host, lets install nginx.
 

[hipo@proxy ~]$ sudo su – root

[root@proxy ~]#  apt update

[root@proxy ~]# apt install -y nginx


Fedora / CentOS / Redhat Linux could use yum or dnf to install NGINX
 

[root@proxy ~]# dnf install -y nginx
[root@proxy ~]# yum install -y nginx

 

2. Launch nginx for a first time and test


Start nginx one time to test default configuration is reachable
 

systemctl enable –now nginx


To test nginx works out of the box right after install, open a browser and go to http://localhost if you have X or use text based browser such as lynx or some web console fetcher as curl to verify that the web server is running as expected.

nginx-test-default-page-centos-linux-screenshot
 

3. Create Reverse proxy configuration file

Remove default Nginx package provided configuration

As of 2020 by default nginx does load configuration from file /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default on DEB based Linuxes and in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf on RPM based ones, therefore to setup our desired configuration and disable default domain config to be loaded we have to unlink on Debian

[root@proxy ~]# unlink /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

or move out the original nginx.conf on Fedora / CentOS / RHEL:
 

[root@proxy ~]# mv /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf-distro

 

Lets take a scenario where you have a local IP address that's NAT-ted ot DMZ-ed and and you want to run nginx to server as a reverse proxy to accelerate traffic and forward all traffic to another webserver such as LigHTTPD / Apache or towards java serving Application server Jboss / Tomcat etc that listens on the same host on lets say on port 8000 accessible via app server from /application/.

To do so prepare new /etc/nginx/nginx.conf to look like so
 

[root@proxy ~]# mv /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx.conf.bak
[root@proxy ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
worker_rlimit_nofile 10240;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /etc/nginx/modules-enabled/*.conf;

 

events {
#       worker_connections 768;
        worker_connections 4096;
        multi_accept on;
        # multi_accept on;
}

http {

        ##
        # Basic Settings
        ##

        sendfile on;
        tcp_nopush on;
        tcp_nodelay on;
        #keepalive_timeout 65;
        keepalive_requests 1024;
        client_header_timeout 30;
        client_body_timeout 30;
        keepalive_timeout 30;
        types_hash_max_size 2048;
        # server_tokens off;

        # server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
        # server_name_in_redirect off;

        include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
        default_type application/octet-stream;

        ##
        # SSL Settings
        ##

        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; # Dropping SSLv3, ref: POODLE
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

        ##
        # Logging Settings
        ##

        access_log /var/log/nginx/domain.com/access.log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/domain.com/error.log;

        ##
        # Gzip Settings
        ##

        gzip on;

        # gzip_vary on;
        # gzip_proxied any;
        # gzip_comp_level 6;
        # gzip_buffers 16 8k;
        # gzip_http_version 1.1;
        # gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

        ##
        # Virtual Host Configs
        ##

        include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
        include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;

 include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;

upstream myapp {
    server 127.0.0.1:8000 weight=3;
    server 127.0.0.1:8001;
    server 127.0.0.1:8002;
    server 127.0.0.1:8003;
# Uncomment and use Load balancing with external FQDNs if needed
#  server srv1.example.com;
#   server srv2.example.com;
#   server srv3.example.co

}

#mail {
#       # See sample authentication script at:
#       # http://wiki.nginx.org/ImapAuthenticateWithApachePhpScript
#
#       # auth_http localhost/auth.php;
#       # pop3_capabilities "TOP" "USER";
#       # imap_capabilities "IMAP4rev1" "UIDPLUS";
#
#       server {
#               listen     localhost:110;
#               protocol   pop3;
#               proxy      on;
#       }
#
#       server {
#               listen     localhost:143;
#               protocol   imap;
#               proxy      on;
#       }
#}

 

In the example above, there are 3 instances of the same application running on 3 IPs on different ports, just for the sake to illustrate Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) Load balancing is also supported you can see the 3 commented application instances srv1-srv3.
 When the load balancing method is not specifically configured, it defaults to round-robin. All requests are proxied to the server group myapp1, and nginx applies HTTP load balancing to distribute the requests.Reverse proxy implementation in nginx includes load balancing for HTTP, HTTPS, FastCGI, uwsgi, SCGI, memcached, and gRPC.
To configure load balancing for HTTPS instead of HTTP, just use “https” as the protocol.


To download above nginx.conf configured for High traffic servers and supports Nginx virtualhosts click here.

Now lets prepare for the reverse proxy nginx configuration a separate file under /etc/nginx/default.d/ all files stored there with .conf extension are to be red by nginx.conf as instructed by /etc/nginx/nginx.conf :

We'll need prepare a sample nginx

[root@proxy ~]# vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/reverse-proxy.conf

server {

        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;


 server_name domain.com www.domain.com;
#index       index.php;
# fallback for index.php usually this one is never used
root        /var/www/domain.com/public    ;
#location / {
#try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
#}

        location / {
                    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080;
  }

 

location /application {
proxy_pass http://domain.com/application/ ;

proxy_http_version                 1.1;
proxy_cache_bypass                 $http_upgrade;

# Proxy headers
proxy_set_header Upgrade           $http_upgrade;
proxy_set_header Connection        "upgrade";
proxy_set_header Host              $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP         $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For   $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host  $host;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port  $server_port;

# Proxy timeouts
proxy_connect_timeout              60s;
proxy_send_timeout                 60s;
proxy_read_timeout                 60s;

        access_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-access.log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-error.log;

}

##listen 443 ssl;
##    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.com/fullchain.pem;
##    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain.com/privkey.pem;
##    include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf;
##    ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem;

}

Get above reverse-proxy.conf from here

As you see config makes all incoming traffic towards root ( / ) NGINX directory for domain http://domain.com on port 80 on Nginx Webserver to be passed on http://127.0.0.1:8000/application.

      location / {
                    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
  }


Another set of configuration has configuration domain.com/application to reverse proxy to Webserver on Port 8080 /application.

 

location /application {
proxy_pass http://domain.com/application/ ;

proxy_http_version                 1.1;
proxy_cache_bypass                 $http_upgrade;

# Proxy headers
proxy_set_header Upgrade           $http_upgrade;
proxy_set_header Connection        "upgrade";
proxy_set_header Host              $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP         $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For   $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host  $host;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port  $server_port;

# Proxy timeouts
proxy_connect_timeout              60s;
proxy_send_timeout                 60s;
proxy_read_timeout                 60s;

        access_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-access.log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/reverse-error.log;

}

– Enable new configuration to be active in NGINX

 

[root@proxy ~]# ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/reverse-proxy.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/reverse-proxy.conf

 

4. Test reverse proxy nginx config for syntax errors

 

[root@proxy ~]# nginx -t

 

nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

Test connectivity to listen external IP address

 

5. Enable nginx SSL letsencrypt certificates support

 

[root@proxy ~]# apt-get update
[root@proxy ~]# apt-get install software-properties-common

[root@proxy ~]# apt-get update
[root@proxy ~]# apt-get install python-certbot-nginx

 

6. Generate NGINX Letsencrypt certificates

 

[root@proxy ~]# certbot –nginx

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator nginx, Installer nginx

Which names would you like to activate HTTPS for?
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
1: your.domain.com
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Select the appropriate numbers separated by commas and/or spaces, or leave input
blank to select all options shown (Enter 'c' to cancel): 1
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for your.domain.com
Waiting for verification…
Cleaning up challenges
Deploying Certificate to VirtualHost /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/reverse-proxy.conf

Please choose whether or not to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, removing HTTP access.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
1: No redirect – Make no further changes to the webserver configuration.
2: Redirect – Make all requests redirect to secure HTTPS access. Choose this for
new sites, or if you're confident your site works on HTTPS. You can undo this
change by editing your web server's configuration.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): 2
Redirecting all traffic on port 80 to ssl in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/reverse-proxy.conf

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Congratulations! You have successfully enabled https://your.domain.com

You should test your configuration at:
https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=your.domain.com
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

 

7. Set NGINX Reverse Proxy to auto-start on Linux server boot

On most modern Linux distros use systemctl for legacy machines depending on the Linux distribution use the addequate runlevel /etc/rc3.d/ symlink link on Debian based distros on Fedoras / CentOS / RHEL and other RPM based ones use chkconfig RedHat command.

 

[root@proxy ~]# systemctl start nginx
[root@proxy ~]# systemctl enable nginx

 

8. Fixing weird connection permission denied errors


If you get a weird permission denied errors right after you have configured the ProxyPass on Nginx and you're wondering what is causing it you have to know by default on CentOS 7 and RHEL you'll get this errors due to automatically enabled OS selinux security hardening.

If this is the case after you setup Nginx + HTTPD or whatever application server you will get errors in  /var/log/nginx.log like:

2020/12/14 07:46:01 [crit] 7626#0: *1 connect() to 127.0.0.1:8080 failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server: , request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "http://127.0.0.1:8080/", host: "localhost"
2020/12/14 07:46:01 [crit] 7626#0: *1 connect() to 127.0.0.1:8080 failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server: , request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "http://127.0.0.1:8080/", host: "localhost"
2020/12/14 07:46:01 [crit] 7626#0: *1 connect() to 127.0.0.1:8080 failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server: , request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "http://127.0.0.1:8080/", host: "localhost"
2020/12/14 07:46:02 [crit] 7626#0: *1 connect() to 127.0.0.1:8080 failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server: , request: "GET / HTTP/1.1", upstream: "http://127.0.0.1:8080/", host: "localhost"


The solution to proxy_pass weird permission denied errors is to turn off selinux

[root@proxy ~]# setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect 1

To permanently allow nginx and httpd

[root@proxy ~]# cat /var/log/audit/audit.log | grep nginx | grep denied | audit2allow -M mynginx
[root@proxy ~]# semodule -i mynginx.pp

 

[root@proxy ~]# cat /var/log/audit/audit.log | grep httpd | grep denied | audit2allow -M myhttpd
[root@proxy ~]# semodule -i myhttpd.pp


Then to let know nginx and httpd (or whatever else app you run) be aware of new settings restart both

[root@proxy ~]# systemctl restart nginx
[root@proxy ~]# systemctl restart httpd

How to colorize your Mac OS X Terminal – Beautify your Mac OS terminal and proper Page Up / Page Down and Home / End bindings

Thursday, March 19th, 2015

Reading Time: 3minutes


If you're a sysadmin (like me) or a programmer and love working on console most of the time on a recently bought Apple (Mac) PC, probably not like that by default Terminal App lacks nice color highlighting, color highlighly is already standard on Ubuntu / Debian / Mint and many of the streamline Linux distros for years, so it's weird that the shiny Mac lacks that in console 🙂
 I'm not blaming Mac OS developers for shipping by default Mac's console so much greyish as most Mac userbase almost never use terminals, however adding some appearance candy makes my boring digital life much more entertaining.

beautify-add-colors-to-Mac-OSX-default-app-program-add-shiny-clolors-improve-mac-os-x-terminal-screenshot.png

Put in your home directory $HOME/.profile or in .bash_profile file below code:

 

vim ~/.profile
PS1='\[\e[0;33m\]\u\[\e[0m\]@\[\e[0;32m\]\h\[\e[0m\]:\[\e[0;34m\]\w\[\e[0m\]\$ '
export PATH="/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/sbin:$PATH"
export CLICOLOR=1
export LSCOLORS=ExFxBxDxCxegedabagacad
alias ls='ls -GFh'

 

echo "PS1='\[\e[0;33m\]\u\[\e[0m\]@\[\e[0;32m\]\h\[\e[0m\]:\[\e[0;34m\]\w\[\e[0m\]\$ '
export PATH="/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/sbin:$PATH"" >> ~/.profile

echo "export CLICOLOR=1" >> ~/.profile
echo "export LSCOLORS=ExFxBxDxCxegedabagacad" >> ~/.profile
echo "alias ls='ls -GFh'"  >> ~/.profile

 


PS1 with above string do colorize Terminal's default “username@hostname:cwd $” following alias makes by default ls (dir) command to have colors enabled (show files and folders in shiny colors like on GNU / Linux). As you see the ls command perameter -G which actually adds colors is the same like in FreeBSD (since very big part of Mac OS is based on BSD UNIX utils), -F makes directories to be marked with / and -h (stands for human readable).
If you want to enable terminal ls colors for all existing Mac computer users open /etc/profile and (uncomment) / include:

 

export CLICOLOR=1
export LSCOLORS=GxFxCxDxBxegedabagaced

 


If you want to customize further Mac OS's default Terminal App (add different Colorize Theme), change default shell, change default Title, add Transparency, Change Term Encoding etc.  go and check settings in:
 

Terminal -> Settings


Mac-OS-default-Terminal-shell-settings-interface-change-theme-mountain-lion-screenshot
One really annoying thing about Mac OS X terminal for being users is that by default Command + D which is like CTRL + D on a non-Mac PC sends Split Window command, splitting the screen by two,  if you're a new Mac user like me you will have to get used to Command + Shift + D which is the Mac equivalent of regular PC keyboard CTRL + D. Note that it is not possible to move between Splitted screens but instead the upper part of the split screen is just like a buffer where old output from terminal is put and can be used to keep an eye constantly on old content displayed on terminal …
If you're too lazy to edit files and stuff and just want to receive already well configured Terminal which has many of the features of gnome-terminal / konsole which are not there in  Mac's default Terminal App, just download and use iTerm2 (OS X Terminal Replacement)

iterm2-mac-osx-mounta-lion-10.8.5-best-terminal-application-for-mac-OSX-screenshot

Once over with Terminal customizations if you happen to use VI Improved (VIM) text editor as an editor of choice on Mac create at least following .vimrc in your HOME directory
 

$ vim ~/.vimrc

" End
map <C-E> <End>
imap <C-E> <C-O><End>

" Home
map <C-A> <Home>
map <C-A> <C-O><Home>

 


This maps Command + A / Command + E to (emulate) act like normal PC Home / End Keyboard key button, to emulate Page Up / Page Down keys on Mac OS keyboard inside Terminal app use Fn (key) + Up / Down arrows.
To make HOME / END buttons answer to Control + A / E on a Terminal App level:

 

Inside Terminal.app
Open the Preferences window (CMD+,)
Click the Settings tab
Select your current Settings theme, and click on the Keyboard tab
Edit (or Add) the entry for Home
Set Action: to send string to shell:
Set the string to \001 (or press Ctrl+a)
Edit (or Add) the entry for End
Set Action: to send string to shell:
Set the string to \005 (or press Ctrl+e)
Edit (or Add) the entry for Page Up
Set Action: to send string to shell:
Set the string to \033[5~ (copy and paste this in)
Edit (or Add) the entry for Page Down
Set Action: to send string to shell:
Set the string to \033[6~ (copy and paste this in)
Close the settings window.