Posts Tagged ‘Below’

Improve wordpress admin password encryption authentication keys security with WordPress Unique Authentication Keys and Salts

Friday, October 9th, 2020

wordpress-improve-security-logo-linux

Having a wordpress blog or website with an admistrator and access via a Secured SSL channel is common nowadays. However there are plenty of SSL encryption leaks already out there and many of which are either slow to be patched or the hosting companies does not care enough to patch on time the libssl Linux libraries / webserver level. Taking that in consideration many websites hosted on some unmaintained one-time run not-frequently updated Linux servers are still vulneable and it might happen that, if you paid for some shared hosting in the past and someone else besides you hosted the website and forget you even your wordpress installation is still living on one of this SSL vulnerable hosts. In situations like that malicious hackers could break up the SSL security up to some level or even if the SSL is secured use MITM (MAN IN THE MIDDLE) attack to simulate your well secured and trusted SSID Name WIFi network to  redirects the network traffic you use (via an SSL transparent Proxy) to connect to WordPress Administrator Dashbiard via https://your-domain.com/wp-admin. Once your traffic is going through the malicious hax0r even if you haven't used the password to authenticate every time, e.g. you have saved the password in browser and WordPress Admin Panel authentication is achieved via a Cookie the cookies generated and used one time by Woddpress site could be easily stealed one time and later from the vicious 1337 h4x0r and reverse the hash with an interceptor Tool and login to your wordpress …

Therefore to improve the wordpress site security it very important to have configured WordPress Unique Authentication Keys and Salts (known also as the WordPress security keys).

They're used by WordPress installation to have a uniquely generated different key and Salt from the default one to the opened WordPress Blog / Site Admin session every time.

So what are the Authentication Unique Keys and Salts and why they are Used?

Like with almost any other web application, when PHP session is opened to WordPress, the code creates a number of Cookies stored locally on your computer.

Two of the cookies created are called:

 wordpress_[hash]
wordpress_logged_in_[hash]

First  cookie is used only in the admin pages (WordPress dashboard), while the second cookie is used throughout WordPress to determine if you are logged in to WordPress or not. Note: [hash] is a random hashed value typically assigned to your session, therefore in reality the cookies name would be named something like wordpress_ffc02f68bc9926448e9222893b6c29a9.

WordPress session stores your authentication details (i.e. WordPress username and password) in both of the above mentioned cookies.

The authentication details are hashed, hence it is almost impossible for anyone to reverse the hash and guess your password through a cookie should it be stolen. By almost impossible it also means that with today’s computers it is practically unfeasible to do so.

WordPress security keys are made up of four authentication keys and four hashing salts (random generated data) that when used together they add an extra layer to your cookies and passwords. 

The authentication details in these cookies are hashed using the random pattern specified in the WordPress security keys. I will not get into too much details but as you might have heard in Cryptography Salts and Keys are important – an indepth explanation on Salts Cryptography (here). A good reading for those who want to know more on how does the authentication based and salts work is on stackexchange.

How to Set up Salt and Key Authentication on WordPress
 

To be used by WP Salts and Key should be configured under wp-config.php usually they look like so:

wordpress-website-blog-salts-keys-wp-config-screenshot-linux

!!! Note !!!  that generating (manually or generated via a random generator program), the definition strings you have to use a random string value of more than 60 characters to prevent predictability 

The default on any newly installed WordPress Website is to have the 4 definitions with _KEY and the four _SALTs to be unconfigured strings looks something like:

default-WordPress-security-keys-and-salts-entries-in-wordPress-wp-config-php-file

Most people never ever take a look at wp-config.php as only the Web GUI Is used for any maintainance, tasks so there is a great chance that if you never heard specifically by some WordPress Security Expert forum or some Security plugin (such as WP Titan Anti Spam & Security) installed to report the WP KEY / SALT you might have never noticed it in the config.

There are 8 WordPress security keys in current WP Installs, but not all of them have been introduced at the same time.
Historically they were introduced in WP versions in below order:

WordPress 2.6: AUTH_KEY, SECURE_AUTH_KEY, LOGGED_IN_KEY
WordPress 2.7: NONCE_KEY
WordPress 3.0: AUTH_SALT, SECURE_AUTH_SALT, LOGGED_IN_SALT, NONCE_SALT

Setting a custom random generated values is an easy task as there is already online Wordpress Security key Random generator.
You can visit above address and you will get an automatic randomly generated values which could be straight copy / pasted to your wp-config.php.

Howeever if you're a paranoic on the guessability of the random generator algorithm, I would advice you use the generator and change some random values yourself on each of the 8 line, the end result in the configuration should be something similar to:

 

define('AUTH_KEY',         '|w+=W(od$V|^hy$F5w)g6O-:e[WI=NHY/!Ez@grd5=##!;jHle_vFPqz}D5|+87Q');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'rGReh.<%QBJ{DP )p=BfYmp6fHmIG~ePeHC[MtDxZiZD;;_OMp`sVcKH:JAqe$dA');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    '%v8mQ!)jYvzG(eCt>)bdr+Rpy5@t fTm5fb:o?@aVzDQw8T[w+aoQ{g0ZW`7F-44');
define('NONCE_KEY',        '$o9FfF{S@Z-(/F-.6fC/}+K 6-?V.XG#MU^s?4Z,4vQ)/~-[D.X0<+ly0W9L3,Pj');
define('AUTH_SALT',        ':]/2K1j(4I:DPJ`(,rK!qYt_~n8uSf>=4`{?LC]%%KWm6@j|aht@R.i*ZfgS4lsj');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'XY{~:{P&P0Vw6^i44Op*nDeXd.Ec+|c=S~BYcH!^j39VNr#&FK~wq.3wZle_?oq-');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   '8D|2+uKX;F!v~8-Va20=*d3nb#4|-fv0$ND~s=7>N|/-2]rk@F`DKVoh5Y5i,w*K');
define('NONCE_SALT',       'ho[<2C~z/:{ocwD{T-w+!+r2394xasz*N-V;_>AWDUaPEh`V4KO1,h&+c>c?jC$H');

 


Wordpress-auth-key-secure-auth-salt-Linux-wordpress-admin-security-hardening

Once above defines are set, do not forget to comment or remove old AUTH_KEY / SECURE_AUTH_KEY / LOGGED_IN_KEY / AUTH_SALT / SECURE_AUTH_SALT / LOGGED_IN_SALT /NONCE_SALT keys.

The values are configured one time and never have to be changed, WordPress installation automatic updates or Installed WP Plugins will not tamper the value with time.
You should never expand or show your private generated keys to anyone otherwise this could be used to hack your website site.
It is also a good security practice to change this keys, especially if you have some suspects someone has somehow stolen your wp-onfig keys. 
 

Closure

Having AUTH KEYs and Properly configured is essential step to improve your WordPress site security. Anytime having any doubt for a browser hijacked session (or if you have logged in) to your /wp-admin via unsecured public Computer with a chance of a stolen site cookies you should reset keys / salts to a new random values. Setting the auth keys is not a panacea and frequent WP site core updates and plugins should be made to secure your install. Always do frequent audits to WP owned websites with a tool such as WPScan is essential to keep your WP Website unhacked.

 

 

Report haproxy node switch script useful for Zabbix or other monitoring

Tuesday, June 9th, 2020

zabbix-monitoring-logo
For those who administer corosync clustered haproxy and needs to build monitoring in case if the main configured Haproxy node in the cluster is changed, I've developed a small script to be integrated with zabbix-agent installed to report to a central zabbix server via a zabbix proxy.
The script  is very simple it assumed DC1 variable is the default used haproxy node and DC2 and DC3 are 2 backup nodes. The script is made to use crm_mon which is not installed by default on each server by default so if you'll be using it you'll have to install it first, but anyways the script can easily be adapted to use pcs cmd instead.

Below is the bash shell script:

UserParameter=active.dc,f=0; for i in $(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1|grep -i 'Node ' |awk '{ print $2 }'); do ((f++)); DC[$f]="$i"; done; \
DC=$(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1 | grep 'Current DC' | awk '{ print $1 " " $2 " " $3}' | awk '{ print $3 }'); \
if [ “$DC” == “${DC[1]}” ]; then echo “1 Default DC Switched to ${DC[1]}”; elif [ “$DC” == “${DC[2]}” ]; then \
echo "2 Default DC Switched to ${DC[2]}”; elif [ “$DC” == “${DC[3]}” ]; then echo “3 Default DC: ${DC[3]}"; fi


To configure it with zabbix monitoring it can be configured via UserParameterScript.

The way I configured  it in Zabbix is as so:


1. Create the userpameter_active_node.conf

Below script is 3 nodes Haproxy cluster

# cat > /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/userparameter_active_node.conf

UserParameter=active.dc,f=0; for i in $(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1|grep -i 'Node ' |awk '{ print $2 }'); do ((f++)); DC[$f]="$i"; done; \
DC=$(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1 | grep 'Current DC' | awk '{ print $1 " " $2 " " $3}' | awk '{ print $3 }'); \
if [ “$DC” == “${DC[1]}” ]; then echo “1 Default DC Switched to ${DC[1]}”; elif [ “$DC” == “${DC[2]}” ]; then \
echo "2 Default DC Switched to ${DC[2]}”; elif [ “$DC” == “${DC[3]}” ]; then echo “3 Default DC: ${DC[3]}"; fi

Once pasted to save the file press CTRL + D


The version of the script with 2 nodes slightly improved is like so:
 

UserParameter=active.dc,f=0; for i in $(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1|grep -i 'Node ' |awk '{ print $2 }' | sed -e 's#:##g'); do DC_ARRAY[$f]=”$i”; ((f++)); done; GET_CURR_DC=$(sudo /usr/sbin/crm_mon -n -1 | grep ‘Current DC’ | awk ‘{ print $1 ” ” $2 ” ” $3}’ | awk ‘{ print $3 }’); if [ “$GET_CURR_DC” == “${DC_ARRAY[0]}” ]; then echo “1 Default DC ${DC_ARRAY[0]}”; fi; if [ “$GET_CURR_DC” == “${DC_ARRAY[1]}” ]; then echo “2 Default Current DC Switched to ${DC_ARRAY[1]} Please check “; fi; if [ -z “$GET_CURR_DC” ] || [ -z “$DC_ARRAY[1]” ]; then printf "Error something might be wrong with HAProxy Cluster on  $HOSTNAME "; fi;


The haproxy_active_DC_zabbix.sh script with a bit of more comments as explanations is available here 
2. Configure access for /usr/sbin/crm_mon for zabbix user in sudoers

 

# vim /etc/sudoers

zabbix          ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/crm_mon


3. Configure in Zabbix for active.dc key Trigger and Item

active-node-switch1

Check if server is Physical Bare Metal or a Virtual Machine and its type

Tuesday, March 17th, 2020

check-if-linux-operating-system-is-running-on-physical-bare-metal-or-virtual-machine

In modern times the IT employee system administrator / system engineer / security engineer or a developer who has to develop and test code remotely on UNIX hosts, we have to login to multiple of different servers located in separate data centers around the world situated in Hybrid Operating system environments running multitude of different Linux OSes. Often especially for us sysadmins it is important to know whether the remote machine we have SSHed to is physical server (Bare Metal) or a virtual machines running on top of different kind of Hypervisor node OpenXen / Virtualbox / Virtuosso  / VMWare etc.
 

Then the question comes how to determine whether A remote Installed Linux is Physical or Virtual ?
 

1. Using the dmesg kernel log utility


The good old dmesg that is used to examine and control the kernel ring buffer detects plenty of useful information which gives you the info whether a server is Virtual or Bare Metal. It is present and accessible on every Linux server out there, thus using it is the best and simplest way to determine the OS system node type.

To grep whether a machine is Virtual and the Hypervisor type use:

 

nginx:~# dmesg | grep "Hypervisor detected"
[0.000000] Hypervisor detected: KVM


As you see above OS installed is using the KVM Virtualization technology.

An empty output of this command means the Remote OS is installed on a physical computer.

 

2. Detecting the OS platform the systemd way


Systemd along with the multiple over-complication of things that nearly all sysadmins (including me hate) so much introduced something useful in the fact of hostnamectl command
that could give you the info about the OS chassis platform.

 

root@pcfreak:~# hostnamectl status
 
 Static hostname: pcfreak
         Icon name: computer-desktop
           Chassis: desktop
        Machine ID: 02425d67037b8e67cd98bd2800002671
           Boot ID: 34a83b9a79c346168082f7605c2f557c
  Operating System: Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
            Kernel: Linux 4.19.0-5-amd64
      Architecture: x86-64

 

 

Below is output of a VM running on a Oracle Virtualbox HV.

 

linux:~# hostnamectl status
Static hostname: ubuntuserver
 Icon name: computer-vm
 Chassis: vm
 Machine ID: 2befe86cf8887ca098f509e457554beb
 Boot ID: 8021c02d65dc46b1885afb25fddcf18c
 Virtualization: oracle
 Operating System: Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS
 Kernel: Linux 4.4.0-78-generic
 Architecture: x86-64

 

3. Detect concrete container virtualization with systemd-detect-virt 


Another Bare Metal or VM identify tool that was introducted some time ago by freedesktop project is systemd-detect-virt (usually command is part of systemd package).
It is useful to detect the exact virtualization on a systemd running OS systemd-detect-virt is capable to detect many type of Virtualization type that are rare like: IBM zvm S390 Z/VM, bochs, bhyve (a FreeBSD hypervisor), Mac OS's parallels, lxc (linux containers), docker containers, podman etc.

The output from the command is either none (if no virtualization is present or the VM Hypervisor Host type):

 

server:~# systemd-detect-virt
none

 

quake:~# systemd-detect-virt
oracle

 

4. Install and use facter to report per node facts

 

debian:~# apt-cache show facter|grep -i desc -A2
Description-en: collect and display facts about the system
 Facter is Puppet’s cross-platform system profiling library. It discovers and
 reports per-node facts, which are collected by the Puppet agent and are made

Description-md5: 88cdf9a1db3df211de4539a0570abd0a
Homepage: https://github.com/puppetlabs/facter
Tag: devel::lang:ruby, devel::library, implemented-in::ruby,
root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# apt-cache show facter|grep -i desc -A1
Description-en: collect and display facts about the system
 Facter is Puppet’s cross-platform system profiling library. It discovers and

Description-md5: 88cdf9a1db3df211de4539a0570abd0a
Homepage: https://github.com/puppetlabs/facter

 


– Install facter on Debian / Ubuntu / deb based Linux

 

# apt install facter –yes


– Install facter on RedHat / CentOS RPM based distros

# yum install epel-release

 

# yum install facter


– Install facter on OpenSuSE / SLES

# zypper install facter


Once installed on the system to find out whether the remote Operating System is Virtual:

# facter 2> /dev/null | grep virtual
is_virtual => false
virtual => physical


If the machine is a virtual machine you will get some different output like:

# facter 2> /dev/null | grep virtual
is_virtual => true
virtual => kvm


If you're lazy to grep you can use it with argument.

# facter virtual
physical

 

6. Use lshw and dmidecode (list hardware configuration tool)


If you don't have the permissions to install facter on the system and you can see whether lshw (list hardware command) is not already present on remote host.

# lshw -class system  
storage-host                  
    description: Computer
    width: 64 bits
    capabilities: smbios-2.7 vsyscall32

If the system is virtual you'll get an output similar to:

# lshw -class system  
debianserver 
 description: Computer
 product: VirtualBox
 vendor: innotek GmbH
 version: 1.2
 serial: 0
 width: 64 bits
 capabilities: smbios-2.5 dmi-2.5 vsyscall32
 configuration: family=Virtual Machine uuid=78B58916-4074-42E2-860F-7CAF39F5E6F5


Of course as it provides a verbosity of info on Memory / CPU type / Caches / Cores / Motherboard etc. virtualization used or not can be determined also with dmidecode / hwinfo and other tools that detect the system hardware this is described thoroughfully in my  previous article Get hardware system info on Linux.


7. Detect virtualziation using virt-what or imvirt scripts


imvirt is a little script to determine several virtualization it is pretty similar to virt-what the RedHat own script for platform identification. Even though virt-what is developed for RHEL it is available on other distros, Fedoda, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch Linux (AUR) just like is imvirt.

installing both of them is with the usual apt-get / yum or on Arch Linux with yay package manager (yay -S virt-what) …

Once run the output it produces for physical Dell / HPE / Fujitsu-Siemens Bare Metal servers would be just empty string.

# virt-what
#

Or if the system is Virtual Machine, you'll get the type, for example KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) / virtualbox / qemu etc.

#imvirt
Physical

 

Conclusion


It was explained how to do a simple check whether the server works on a physical hardware or on a virtual Host hypervisor. The most basic and classic way is with dmesg. If no access to dmesg is due to restrictions you can try the other methods for systemd enabled OSes with hostnamectl / systemd-detect-virt. Other means if the tools are installed or you have the permissions to install them is with facter / lshw or with virt-what / imvirt scripts.
There definitely perhaps much more other useful tools to grasp hardware and virtualization information but this basics could be useful enough for shell scripting purposes.
If you know other tools, please share.
 

The beheading of Saint John the Baptist feats in Eastern Orthodox Church – A short history of saint John Forerunners Holy Relics

Saturday, September 14th, 2019

Beheading_of_St_John_the_Baptist_Icon_IX-century

Saint John the Baptist (The Forerunner of Christ) is all known for being the baptizer of the Lord Jesus Christ in Jordan's river in Israel.

However as nowadays most people are away from the Church and from traditions, that many generations of our ancestors used to follow, little know the details of his beheading and the meaning of why he is venerated so much by so many generations in the last 2000 years.

Thus In this small article, I'll try to shed some light on the Saint John Beheading feast known in Church Slavonic world as Oseknovenie (Осекновение) = beheading and is considered a day of sorrow for the Church for the reason the biggest Old Testamental prophet, a hermit and a man of Gigantic spiritual significance Saint John the Baptist has been beheaded unfairly for having no fault at all but this happened so his righteousness raise up even more and be clear for the generations to come.

The feast of Saint John the Baptist is celebrated on 29 of August in Eastern Orthodox Church, where old Calendar Churches celebrate the feast (13 days) later on 11 of September – I'll not get into details about calendars as this is a long discussion for a separate article.

It should be said in the Church saint John the Baptist is considered the highest saint among all“the first among martyrs in grace”, venerated next in glory to Virgin Mary.

The Martyrdom of Saint John happened in the 32 years after the Nativity (The Birth) of Christ as this is said in the Gospel of Mathew 14:1-12 and Gospel of Mark (6:14-29) in New Testament.

Saint-John-The-Baptist-Orthodox-Bulgarian-icon

Many of the small details, we know about saint John and his earthly living are not given in the Gospel however, but are instead given in the Chuch Tradition (that is kept in the main books and the Living of the Saints, as well as all the books written by the officially canonized saints over the years that used for Eastern Orthodox Church services Singing for many centuries).

From there we know the beheading of Saint John happened short time before the Crucifixion of Christ. After the death of Herode the Great, Romans divided the territory of Province of Palestine in 4 parts and on top of each placed his governor.

Herodos Antipa received by Emperor Augustus Galilea as a territory of Governance. He had a law binded marriage, who was a daughter of king Arepha. Herod left her and cohabited (unlawfully) with Herodias who was his mistress and brother's wife.

As Herodos was a governer and recpetively example for all his subordinate in his Kingdom and was living unlawfully with that woman saint John who knew him personally rebuked him multiple times publicly advising him to leave that woman and live with his lawfully marriaged one as it was written in God's law – that such people are worthy for death just like moreover this was the unwritten law followed by all kind of peoples of his time from noble to smallest and poorest.

Herodoes did not listened and wanted to get rid of saint Johns somehow but he was scared to accuse him for some kind of kingdom lawlessness as the knew saint John was a true prophet of God and feared the people who recognized him as a true prophet  as well as feared he might be put off throne for his evil deed if he finds an excuse to kill the prophet of God.

As the critics on Herodoes living with a concubine while being in marriage, eventually not finding any other way to shut Saint John's mouth, king Herodoes put saint John in Prison with the excuse Saint John was a rebel and preaching things against established authority (About this event is said in Bible Gospel of Luke 3, 19-20).

For his birthday Herodoes prepared enormous banquet in which in front of the many invited guests danced (Salome / Salomia) – the daughter of Herod II and Herodias and her dancing was so much pleasing for the already drunk Herod and in his drunkenness he promised to give her anything she desired up to half of his kingdom.
Salome was still young woman and as it was the tradition then not knowing what would be the best to ask for, she asked her Mother and the Mother being in unlawful relations with Herod in her hatred for the rebuking prophet saint John asked, the head of Saint John the Baptist on a platter.

The-Beheading-of-Saint-John-The-Baptist-Salomnia-dance-in-front-of-Herodos-Sv.-Ioan-Krastitel

The dance of Salome with Saint John's head on a Platter Orthodox icon

Even though Herod was appaled by this strange request, he had to reluctanly agree to keep his word as he was a ruler of a great power and for that time, not keeping a word publicly given would make him though weak, a fraudulant and eventually this will be reason for a rumors for his unseriousness to circulate the kingdom, thus unwillingly he agreed sent soldier to the prison to behead Saint John and the Head of the saint was brought to the perverted Solome and the harlot mother of hers Herodias.

Due to Church tradition when the Head of the 'Biggest in Spiritual Power' of Man born after Christ, as the Gospel speaks was brought to the lecherous feast, the Head even in the platter continued to rebuke, the unwalfullness of Herod.
 

The Jewish famous Historian Flavius Josiphus in his historical book Antiques of the Jews wrote, the reason for beheading of Saint John was:

"lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his [John’s] power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise), [so Herod] thought it best [to put] him to death."

Flavius also states that many of the Jews believed that the military disaster that fell upon Herod as his throne fall a by the hands of Aretas his (father-in-law) was God's immediate punishment for unrighteous behaviour.
There is no exact date when behading of Saint John occured but the historians place it somewhere in year 28 or 29 A. D. (Anno Dommini).

Execution_of_John_the_Baptist_orthodox-icon


The body of saint John was buried immediately (separately from the body) as Herodias for her hatred for the prophet ordered the body to be buried separately from the head, it was buried in the small Palestinian Village (Sebaste), while Herodias took his holy head and buried it in a dung heep. 
Later Joanna (canonized later by saint known as Saint Joanna) – a wife of Herods steward, secretly went to place took the head and buried in the Mount of Olives, where it remained hidden for many centuries.

But the wrath of God is never late soon after Salome was passing a frozen river and while walking on it the ice collapsed and her body up to the head fall hanging in the water, while her head was sitting still over the water.
Just as she used to kick her feet on the ground, she was now, like dancing, making helpless movements in icy water.
 

So Salome hung until the sharp ice cut through her neck. Her head, cut off with a sharp ice, then her head was brought to Herod and Herodias, as John the Baptist's head had once been brought to them, and her body had never been found. The king of Arif of Arabia, in revenge for the dishonor of his daughter – the wife of Herod the four-owner – moved his troops against the wicked king and defeated him. The Roman emperor Guy Julius Caesar Caligula (37-41) in anger sent Herod, together with Herodias, into captivity to Gaul, and then to  . There they were consumed by the sprawling earth.


By a divine revelation the head of Saint John has been found in the 4th century (Celebrated in the Church with a special feast known as The First Finding of Saint John's the Baptist head by a governing official of Eastern Roman empire district who eventually choose to become a monk (monk Inokentij / Innocent). The head of saint John has been found by both divine revelation and the testimony of an Old Jew who confirmed the Jewish oral tradition for the burial of John the Baptist head on that exact place .
Innocent decided to build a Church and a monastic Cell in glory of Saint John the Baptist as the place was holy and sanctified by the graceous head of St. John.
Fearful that holy relics of such a high importance, might be soon stolen and sold, mocked over by unbelievers or destroyed, he immediately hide (burid) the St. John on the very same place, where he found it in the same vessel it was orginally.
Unfortunately on monk Innocent dead the Church fell into ruin was abandoned due to its desert location and eventually as it always happened in that times with old buildings, people used its construction stones for fortifying their own near village houses.

The Second Finding of the Head of Saint John the Baptist, happened some years later in 452 A.D. , during the days of Constantine the Great by two Christian monks who went for a Jerusalem for pilgrimage.who had God given revelation (Saint John himself appeared in a kind of a Vision to the two) and hsa indicated for the same hidden location where Innocent found it (laying under the Church ruins altar).
After digging on the place, the holy relic was found placed in a sack and brought with them to heir home land. On the way back they've met a potter not telling him what was inside the bag and asked him the bag to carry being lazy to do. Saint John the Baptist appeared the potter and told him to take his head and bring it away from this careless lazy monks immediately. The potter took Saint John's head home, and kept it there praying fervently to saint John the Baptist daily, soon before his death he put the head in a container and gave it to his sister.
The 1st and 2nd finding of saint Johns head is established as a feast celebrated yearly in Eastern Orthodox Church on 24 of February.

beheading-of-saint-John-icon

The feast of Beheading of Saint John in the Church is always observed in the Eastern Orthodox Churches Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Greek, Romanian, Georgian etc. with a strict fasting as a sign for the great sorrow we Christians have for the beheading of the Greatest of Prophets and Highest in sight of God born of man.

In some cultures, the pious will not eat food from a flat plate, use a knife, or eat round or red food (such as tomatoes, watermelon, red peppers etc.) on this day.

A short time after a Hieromonk Eustathius (considered by Church historians) to be part of the Arian heretical division happen to have th chance to possess the holy head and he used it frequently to attract followers to the Heretical teachings of Arius (a Lybian heretic presbyter who was condemned in 325 A.D. on the First Council of Nicea convened by Saint Emperor Constantine The Great. Being in a hardships Eustathius buried the head in a cave near Emesa (circa 810 – 820) and soon after a monastery was built on that place by God's providence.

In the year 452, St. John the Baptist appeared to Archimandrite Marcellus of this monastery and indicated where his head was hidden in a water jar buried in the earth. The relic was brought into the city of Emesa and was later transferred to Constantinople.

Saint_John_Head_Holy-relics-Caput-Sti-Joannis-Baptistae-Praecurssoris-Domini-1

The current pressumable relics of head of Saint John the Baptist kept in San Silvestro in Capite Rome

The head of John Baptist disappeared once again after it was transferred from Comana of Cappadocia during a period of Muslim raids (about 820) and was again hidden in the ground during a period of iconoclastic persecusion.
After the veneration of icons was restored in year 850, A vision was revelead by God to patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople (ruling on patriarchial throne in 847 – 857) saw a vision revealing the place where the head of saint John was hidden around y. 850. The patriarch as the order was then communicated about his vision to emperor Michael III, who sent a delegation to Comana, where the head was found. Soon after the head was transferred to city of Nyc and here on 25 of May it was placed in a church in emperor court in Constantinople. The Church feast of the Third Finding of Saint John Baptist head is established for celebration in the Eastern Orthodox Church on 25 of May.

Third-finding-of-Saint-John-the-Baptist-head-holy-relics-orthodox-icon

Currently many small particles of Saint John Head are available for generation among many Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.

The-Face-of-saint-John-the-Baptist-in-Cathedral-of-Our_Lady-in-Amiens-Cathedral

The head  is claimed to be in San Silvestro (Saint Silvester) in Capite in Rome or in Amiens Cathedral, said to have been brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton as he was returning from the Fourth Crusade.
There are also some sources claiming that the real head of John the Baptist is buried in Turkish Antioch or Southern France.

Amiens_-_Cathedrale_Notre-Dame_France

Amiens Cathedrale Notre Dame France – one of most magnificent Gothic edifice in Europe.

During the French Revolution the kept Head in Amiens has been secretly hidden by the Amiens city Mayor in his own home to protect this sacred relic from the destruction (as many holy relics saints disappeared or have been destroyed) by the rebellious enraged crowds fighting for the rights of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" being the goals of the Masonic bortherhoods and many secret societies in France in that time.

Also a reliquary at the Residenz in Munich, Germany, is labeled as containing the skull of John the Baptist by Catholics. In history some sources claim the St. John used to be owned by Knight Templars
А piece of Saint John Baptist skull is held at the Eastern Orthodox Romanian skete Prodromos on Mount Athos.

Further on according to Church tradition saint Luke the Evangelist went to the city of Sebaste bringing with him the right hand of Saint John the Forerunner which was conducting numerous of miracles.

Some of the Relics of John the Baptist are said to be in the possession of the Coptic Orthodox Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes, Egypt.
It is said John the Baptist's arm and a piece of his skull can be found at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.

the_Holy-head-of-saint-John-the-Baptist-relics

It is said John the Baptist's arm and a piece of his skull can be found at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.
At the time of Mehmed the Conqueror, the skull was held in Topkapı, while after his death, his stepmother Mara Branković, a Serbian princess, brought it to Serbia. It was then kept a while at the Dionisios monastery at Mount Athos, then the skull fragment was sent to a nearby island in order to prevent the outbreak of a plague; however, the Ottoman fleet seized it and delivered it to Hasan Pasha of Algeria, who held it in his home until his death. It was then returned to Topkapı. The skull is kept on a golden plate decorated with gold bands with gems and Old Serbian inscriptions. The plate itself is stored in a 16th-century rock crystal box.

The-Face-of-saint-John-the-Baptist-in-Cathedral-of-Our_Lady-in-Amiens-Holy-Relics

The face of St. John the Baptist, in the Cathedral of Our Lady in Amiens.

St. John's arm was brought from Antioch to Constantinople at the time of Constantine VII. It was kept in the Emperor's chapel in the 12th century, then in the Church of the Virgin of the Pharos, then in the Church of Peribleptos in the first half of the 15th century. Spanish envoy Clavijo reported that he saw two different arms in two different monasteries while on a visit to Constantinople in 1404. With the Fall of Constantinople, the Ottomans seized possession of it. In 1484, Bayezid II sent it the knights of Rhodes, while they held his brother Cem captive in return. In 1585, Murad III had the arms brought from Lefkosia castle to Constantinople (henceforth known as Istanbul). The arm is kept in a gold-embellished silver reliquary. There are several inscriptions on the arm: "The beloved of God" on the forefinger, "This is the hand of the Baptist" on the wrist, and "belongs to (monk) Dolin Monahu" on the band above the elbow.

In July 2010, a small reliquary was discovered under the ruins of a 5th-century monastery on St. Ivan Island, Bulgaria. Local archaeologists opened the reliquary in August and found bone fragments of a skull, a hand and a tooth, which they believe belong to st. John the Baptist, based on their interpretation of a Greek inscription on the reliquary.The remains have been carbon-dated to the 1st century. Currently The found relics are being placed for veneration in the sea resort town  of Sozopol, Bulgaria in the Church of saint saint Cyril and Methodius.

The_Holy_Relics-of-Saint-John-The-Baptist-kept-in-Saint-Cyril-Church-Sozopol

Saint John the Baptist Holy Relics in Sozopol Bulgaria

 

Sozopol-Lithia-Lity-with-the-holy-relics-of-saint-John-the-Baptist
 A Lity (Orthodox Vespers) in front of Saint Cyril and Methodius Church in Sozopol resort Bulgaria

There is much to be said in Saint Johns beheading and many great Theology books have been written on the topic however I hope the goal of this article to give a very brief overview for the ordinary people to know our human history over the last 2000 which is highly entangled with Christian faith  succeeded to give a very brief overview on the history of the beheading of saint John the Baptist and the deep history across his holy relics veneration over the centuries.

As a closure for the Article I find worthly to share the sung troparion in the Church services glorifying of saint John the Forerunner in Old Bulgarian / Church Slavonic, Greek and English

TROPARION IN CHURCH SLAVONIC

Па́мять пра́веднаго с похвала́ми, тебе́ же довле́ет свиде́тельство Госпо́дне, Предте́че: показа́л бо ся еси́ вои́стинну и проро́ков честне́йший, я́ко и в струя́х крести́ти сподо́бился еси́ Пропове́даннаго. Те́мже за и́стину пострада́в, ра́дуяся, благовести́л еси́ и су́щим во а́де Бо́га, я́вльшагося пло́тию, взе́млющаго грех ми́ра и подаю́щаго нам ве́лию ми́лость.

TROPARION IN GREEK

Μνήμη Δικαίου μέτ' ἐγκωμίων, σοὶ δὲ ἀρκέσει ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Κυρίου Πρόδρομε· ἀνεδείχθης γὰρ ὄντως καὶ Προφητῶν σεβασμιώτερος, ὅτι καὶ ἐν ῥείθροις βαπτίσαι κατηξιώθης τὸν κηρυττόμενον. Ὅθεν τῆς ἀληθείας ὑπεραθλήσας, χαίρων εὐηγγελίσω καὶ τοῖς ἐν ᾍδῃ, Θεὸν φανερωθέντα ἐν σαρκί, τὸν αἴροντα τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου, καὶ παρέχοντα ἡμῖν τὸ μέγα ἔλεος.

TROPARION (TONE 4)
O Prophet and Forerunner of the coming of Christ, in spite of our eagerness to render you due honor, we fall short when singing your praise. Your glorious birth saved your mother from the shame of barrenness, returned to your father the power of speech, and proclaimed to the world the Incarnation of the Son of God.

KONTAKION (TONE 3)
The woman who had been barren becomes fertile and gives birth today to the Forerunner of Christ. He is the greatest and last of the prophets, for standing in the waters of the Jordon River, he placed his hands on Christ whom all the prophets had announced, and in so doing he became a prophet himself, a preacher and a forerunner of the Word of God.

Howto Configure Linux shell Prompt / Setup custom Terminal show Prompt using default shell variables PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4

Tuesday, August 27th, 2019

how-to-configure-lunux-bsd-shell-prompt-ps1-howto-make-your-terminal-console-shell-nice-and-shiny-1

System Console, Command Operation Console  or Terminal is a Physical device for text (command) input from keyboard, getting the command output and monitoring the status of a shell or programs I/O operations generated traditionally with attached screen. With the development of Computers, physical consoles has become emulated and the input output is translated on the monitor usually via a data transfer  protocol historically mostly over TCP/IP connection to remote IP with telnet or rsh, but due to security limitations Consoles are now accessed over data (encrypted) network protocols with SHA2 / MD5 cryptography algorithm enabled such as over SSH (Secure Shell) network protocol..
The ancestors of physical consoles which in the past were just a Terminal (Monitoring / Monitor device attached to a MainFrame system computer).

Mainframe-physical-terminal-monitor-Old-Computer

What is Physical Console
A classical TTY (TeleTYpewriter) device looked like so and served the purpose of being just a communication and display deivce, whether in reality the actual computing and storage tape devices were in a separate room and communicating to Terminal.

mainframe-super-computer-computing-tape-machine
TTYs are still present in  modern UNIX like GNU / Linux distrubions OSes and the BSD berkley 4.4 code based FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD if you have installed the OS on a physical computer in FreeBSD and Solaris / SunOS there is also tty command. TTY utility in *nix writes the name of the terminal attached to standard input to standard output, in Linux there is a GNU remake of same program part called GNU tty of coreutils package (try man tty) for more.

The physical console is recognizable in Linux as it is indicated with other tree letters pts – (pseudo terminal device) standing for a terminal device which is emulated by an other program (example: xterm, screen, or ssh are such programs). A pts is the slave part of a pts is pseudo there is no separate binary program for it but it is dynamically allocated in memory.
PTS is also called Line consle in Cisco Switches / Router devices, VTY is the physical Serial Console connected on your Cisco device and the network connection emulation to network device is creates with a virtual console session VTL (Virtual Terminal Line). In freebsd the actual /dev/pts* /dev/tty* temporary devices on the OS are slightly different and have naming such as /dev/ttys001.
But the existence of tty and pts emulator is not enough for communicating interrupts to Kernel and UserLand binaries of the Linux / BSD OS, thus to send the commands on top of it is running a System Shell as CSH / TSH / TCSH or BASH which is usually the first program set to run after user logs in over ptty or pseudo tty virtual terminal.

linux-tty-terminal-explained-brief-intro-to-linux-device-drivers-20-638

 

Setting the Bash Prompt in Terminal / Console on GNU / Linux

Bash has system environments to control multiple of variables, which are usually visible with env command, one important variable to change in the past was for example USER / USERNAME which was red by IRC Chat clients  such as BitchX / irssi and could be displayed publicly so if not changed to a separate value, one could have known your Linux login username by simple /whois query to the Nickname in question (if no inetd / xinetd service was running on the Linux box and usually inetd was not running).

Below is my custom set USER / USERNAME to separate

hipo@pcfreak:~$ env|grep USER
USERNAME=Attitude
USER=Attitude

There is plenty of variables to  tune email such as MAIL store directory, terminal used TERM, EDITOR etc. but there are some
variables that are not visible with env query as they're not globally available for all users but just for the single user, to show this ones you need to use declare command instead, to get a full list of All Single and System Wide defined variables and functions type declare in the bash shell, for readability, below is last 10 returned results:

 

hipo@pcfreak:~$ declare | tail -10
{
    local quoted=${1//\'/\'\\\'\'};
    printf "'%s'" "$quoted"
}
quote_readline ()
{
    local quoted;
    _quote_readline_by_ref "$1" ret;
    printf %s "$ret"
}

 

PS1 is present there virtually on any modern Linux distribution and is installed through user home's directory $HOME/.bashrc , ~/.profile or .bash_profile or System Wide globally for all existing users in /etc/passwd (password database file) from /etc/bash.bashrc
In Debian / Ubuntu / Mint GNU / Linux this system variable is set in user home's .bashrc but in Fedora / RHEL Linux distro,
PS1 is configured from /home/username/.bash_profile to find out where PS1 is located for ur user:

cd ~
grep -Rli PS1 .bash*

Here is one more example:

hipo@pcfreak:~$ declare|grep -i PS1|head -1
PS1='\[\e]0;\u@\h: \w\a\]${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$ '
 

hipo@pcfreak:~$ grep PS1 /etc/bash.bashrc
[ -z “$PS1” ] && return
# but only if not SUDOing and have SUDO_PS1 set; then assume smart user.
if ! [ -n “${SUDO_USER}” -a -n “${SUDO_PS1}” ]; then
  PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$ '


Getting current logged in user shell configured PS1 variable can be done with echo:

hipo@pcfreak:~$ echo $PS1
\[\e]0;\u@\h: \w\a\]${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$

So lets observe a little bit the meaning of this obscure line of (code) instructions code which are understood by BASH when being red from PS1 var to do so, I'll give a list of meaning of main understood commands, each of which is defined with \.

The ${debian_chroot} shell variable is defined from /etc/bash.bashrc

Easiest way to change PS1 is to export the string you like with the arguments like so:

 

root@linux:/home/hipo# export PS1='My-Custom_Server-Name# '
My-Custom_Server-Name# echo $PS1
My-Custom_Server-Name#

 

  •     \a : an ASCII bell character (07)
  •     \d : the date in “Weekday Month Date” format (e.g., “Tue May 26”)
  •     \D{format} : the format is passed to strftime(3) and the result is inserted into the prompt string; an empty format results in a locale-specific time representation. The braces are required
  •     \e : an ASCII escape character (033)
  •     \h : the hostname up to the first ‘.’
  •     \H : the hostname
  •     \j : the number of jobs currently managed by the shell
  •     \l : the basename of the shell's terminal device name
  •     \n : newline
  •     \r : carriage return
  •     \s : the name of the shell, the basename of $0 (the portion following the final slash)
  •     \t : the current time in 24-hour HH:MM:SS format
  •     \T : the current time in 12-hour HH:MM:SS format
  •     \@ : the current time in 12-hour am/pm format
  •     \A : the current time in 24-hour HH:MM format
  •     \u : the username of the current user
  •     \v : the version of bash (e.g., 2.00)
  •     \V : the release of bash, version + patch level (e.g., 2.00.0)
  •     \w : the current working directory, with $HOME abbreviated with a tilde
  •     \W : the basename of the current working directory, with $HOME abbreviated with a tilde
  •     \! : the history number of this command
  •     \# : the command number of this command
  •     \$ : if the effective UID is 0, a #, otherwise a $
  •     \nnn : the character corresponding to the octal number nnn
  •     \\ : a backslash
  •     \[ : begin a sequence of non-printing characters, which could be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the prompt
  •     \] : end a sequence of non-printing characters

The default's PS1 set prompt on Debian Linux is:
 

echo $PS1
\[\e]0;\u@\h: \w\a\]${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\$


As you can see \u (print username) \h (print hostname)  and \W (basename of current working dir) or \w (print $HOME/current working dir)
are the most essential, the rest are bell character, escape character etc.

A very good way to make your life easier and learn the abbreviations / generate exactly the PS1 PROMPT you want to have is with Easy Bash PS1 Generator Web Utility
with which you can just click over buttons that are capable to produce all of the PS1 codes.
 

1. How to show current hour:minute:seconds / print full date in Prompt Shell (PS)


Here is an example with setting the Bash Shell prompt  to include also the current time in format hour:minute:seconds (very useful if you're executing commands on a critical servers and you run commands in some kind of virtual terminal like screen or tmux.
 

root@pcfreak:~# PS1="\n\t \u@\h:\w# "
14:03:51 root@pcfreak:/home#


PS1-how-to-setup-date-time-hour-minutes-and-seconds-in-bash-shell-prompt
 

 

export PS1='\u@\H \D{%Y-%m-%d %H:%M;%S%z}] \W ] \$ '

 


export-PS1-Linux-set-full-date-time-clock-prompt-screenshot-console


Make superuser appear in RED color (adding PS1 prompt custom color for a User)
 

root@pcfreak:~$  PS1="\\[$(tput setaf 1)\\]\\u@\\h:\\w #\\[$(tput sgr0)\\]"

 

how-to-change-colors-in-bash-prompt-shell-on-linux-shell-environment

In above example the Shell Prompt Color changed is changed for administrator (root) to shebang symbol # in red, green, yellow and blue for the sake to show you how it is done, however this example can be adapted for any user on the system. Setting different coloring for users is very handy if you have to administer Mail Server service like Qmail or other Application that consists of multiple small ones of multiple daemons such as qmail + vpopmail + clamd + mysql etc. Under such circumstances, coloring each of the users in different color like in the example for debugging is very useful.

Coloring the PS1 system prompt on Linux to different color has been a standard practice in Linux Server environments running Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and SuSE Enterprise Linux and some Desktop distributions such as Mint Linux.

To make The Root prompt Red colored only for system super user (root) on any Linux distribution
, add the following to /etc/bashrc, e.g.

vim /etc/bashrc
 


# If id command returns zero, you've root access.
if [ $(id -u) -eq 0 ];
then # you are root, set red colour prompt
  PS1="\\[$(tput setaf 1)\\]\\u@\\h:\\w #\\[$(tput sgr0)\\]"
else # normal
  PS1="[\\u@\\h:\\w] $"
fi

 

 

2. How to make the prompt of a System user appear Green


Add to ~/.bashrc  following line

 

 

PS1="\\[$(tput setaf 2)\\]\\u@\\h:\\w #\\[$(tput sgr0)\\]"
 

 

3. Print New line, username@hostname, base PTY, shell level, history (number), newline and full working directory $PWD

 

export PS1='\n[\u@\h \l:$SHLVL:\!]\n$PWD\$ '

 

4. Showing the numbert of jobs the shell is currently managing.


This is useful if you run and switch with fg / bg (foreground / background) commands
to switch between jobs and forget some old job.

 

export PS1='\u@\H \D{%Y-%m-%d %H:%M;%S%z}] \W \$]'

 

Multi Lines Prompt / Make very colorful Shell prompt full of stats info

PS1="\n\[\033[35m\]\$(/bin/date)\n\[\033[32m\]\w\n\[\033[1;31m\]\u@\h: \[\033[1;34m\]\$(/usr/bin/tty | /bin/sed -e ‘s:/dev/::’): \[\033[1;36m\]\$(/bin/ls -1 | /usr/bin/wc -l | /bin/sed ‘s: ::g’) files \[\033[1;33m\]\$(/bin/ls -lah | /bin/grep -m 1 total | /bin/sed ‘s/total //’)b\[\033[0m\] -> \[\033[0m\]"

 

 

prompt-show-how-many-files-and-virtual-pts-ps1-linux
 

5. Set color change on command failure


If you have a broken command or the command ended with non zero output with some kind of bad nasty message and you want to make, that more appearing making it red heighlighted, here is how:

 

PROMPT_COMMAND='PS1="\[\033[0;33m\][\!]\`if [[ \$? = “0” ]]; then echo “\\[\\033[32m\\]”; else echo “\\[\\033[31m\\]”; fi\`[\u.\h: \`if [[ `pwd|wc -c|tr -d ” “` > 18 ]]; then echo “\\W”; else echo “\\w”; fi\`]\$\[\033[0m\] “; echo -ne “\033]0;`hostname -s`:`pwd`\007"'

 

6. Other beautiful PS1 Color Prompts with statistics

 

PS1="\n\[\e[32;1m\](\[\e[37;1m\]\u\[\e[32;1m\])-(\[\e[37;1m\]jobs:\j\[\e[32;1m\])-(\[\e[37;1m\]\w\[\e[32;1m\])\n(\[\[\e[37;1m\]! \!\[\e[32;1m\])-> \[\e[0m\]"

 

 

another-very-beuatiful-bash-colorful-prompt

 

7. Add Muliple Colors to Same Shell prompt

 

function prompt { local BLUE="\[\033[0;34m\]” local DARK_BLUE=”\[\033[1;34m\]” local RED=”\[\033[0;31m\]” local DARK_RED=”\[\033[1;31m\]” local NO_COLOR=”\[\033[0m\]” case $TERM in xterm*|rxvt*) TITLEBAR=’\[\033]0;\u@\h:\w\007\]’ ;; *) TITLEBAR=”” ;; esac PS1=”\u@\h [\t]> ” PS1=”${TITLEBAR}\ $BLUE\u@\h $RED[\t]>$NO_COLOR " PS2='continue-> ' PS4='$0.$LINENO+ ' }

colorful-prompt-blue-and-red-linux-console-PS1
 

8. Setting / Change Shell background Color


changing-background-color-of-bash-shell-prompt-linux

 

export PS1="\[$(tput bold)$(tput setb 4)$(tput setaf 7)\]\u@\h:\w $ \[$(tput sgr0)\]"

 

tput Color Capabilities:

  • tput setab [1-7] – Set a background color using ANSI escape
  • tput setb [1-7] – Set a background color
  • tput setaf [1-7] – Set a foreground color using ANSI escape
  • tput setf [1-7] – Set a foreground color

tput Text Mode Capabilities:

  • tput bold – Set bold mode
  • tput dim – turn on half-bright mode
  • tput smul – begin underline mode
  • tput rmul – exit underline mode
  • tput rev – Turn on reverse mode
  • tput smso – Enter standout mode (bold on rxvt)
  • tput rmso – Exit standout mode
  • tput sgr0 – Turn off all attributes

Color Code for tput:

  • 0 – Black
  • 1 – Red
  • 2 – Green
  • 3 – Yellow
  • 4 – Blue
  • 5 – Magenta
  • 6 – Cyan
  • 7 – White

 

9. Howto Use bash shell function inside PS1 variable

If you administrate Apache or other HTTPD servers or any other server whose processes are forked and do raise drastically at times to keep an eye while actively working on the server.

 

function httpdcount { ps aux | grep apache2 | grep -v grep | wc -l } export PS1="\u@\h [`httpdcount`]> "

10. PS2, PS3, PS4 little known variables
 

I'll not get much into detail to PS2, PS3, PS4 but will mention them as perhaps many people are not even aware they exist.
They're rarely used in the daily system administrator's work but useful for Shell scripting purposes of Dev Ops and Shell Scripting Guru Programmers.

  • PS2 – Continuation interactive prompt

A very long unix command can be broken down to multiple line by giving \ at the end of the line. The default interactive prompt for a multi-line command is “> “.  Let us change this default behavior to display “continue->” by using PS2 environment variable as shown below.

hipo@db-host :~$ myisamchk –silent –force –fast –update-state \
> –key_buffer_size=512M –sort_buffer_size=512M \
> –read_buffer_size=4M –write_buffer_size=4M \
> /var/lib/mysql/bugs/*.MYI
[Note: This uses the default “>” for continuation prompt]

  • PS3 – Prompt used by “select” inside shell script (usefulif you write scripts with user prompts)

     

  • PS4 – Used by “set -x” to prefix tracing output
    The PS4 shell variable defines the prompt that gets displayed.

You can find  example with script demonstrating PS2, PS3, PS4 use via small shell scripts in thegeekstuff's article Take control of PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4 read it here

 

Summary


In this article, I've shortly reviewed on what is a TTY, how it evolved into Pseudo TTY and how it relates to current shells which are the interface communicating with the modern UNIX like Operating systems's userland and kernel.
Also it was reviewed shortly how the current definitions of shell variables could be viewed with declare cmd. Also I went through on how to display the PS1 variable and  on how to modify PS1 and make the prompt different statistics and monitoring parameters straight into the command shell. I've shown some common PS1 strings that report on current date hour, minute, seconds, modify the coloring of the bash prompt shell, show processes count, and some PS1 examples were given that combines beuatiful shell coloring as well as how the Prompt background color can be changed.
Finally was shown how a combination of commands can be executed by exporting to PS1 to update process counf of Apache on every shell prompt iteration.
Other shell goodies are mostly welcome

 

 

Howto create Linux Music Audio CD from MP3 files / Create playable WAV format Audio CD Albums from MP3s

Tuesday, July 16th, 2019

cdburning-audio-music-cd-from-mp3-on-linuxcomapct-disc-tux-linux-logo

Recently my Mother asked me to prepare a Music Audio CD for her from a popular musician accordionist Stefan Georgiev from Dobrudja who has a unique folklore Bulgarian music.

As some of older people who still remember the age of the CD and who had most likely been into the CD burning Copy / Piracy business so popular in the countries of the ex-USSR so popular in the years 1995-2000 audio ,  Old CD Player Devices were not able to play the MP3 file format due to missing codecs (as MP3 was a proprietary compression that can't be installed on every device without paying the patent to the MP3 compression rights holder.

The revolutionary MP3 compression used to be booming standard for transferring Music data due to its high compression which made an ordinary MP3 of 5 minutes of 5MB (10+ times more compression than an ordinary classic WAV Audio the CPU intensiveness of MP3 files that puts on the reading device, requiring the CD Player to have a more powerful CPU.

Hence  due to high licensing cost and requirement for more powerful CPU enabled Audio Player many procuders of Audio Players never introduced MP3 to their devices and MP3 Neve become a standard for the Audio CD that was the standard for music listening inside almost every car out there.

Nowdays it is very rare need to create a Audio CD as audio CDs seems to be almost dead (As I heard from a Richard Stallman lecture In USA nowadays there is only 1 shop in the country where you can still buy CD or DVD drives) and only in third world as Africa Audio CDs perhaps are still in circulation.

Nomatter that as we have an old Stereo CD player on my village and perhaps many others, still have some old retired CD reading devices being able to burn out a CD is a useful thing.

Thus to make mother happy and as a learning excercise, I decided to prepare the CD for her on my Linux notebook.
Here I'll shortly describe the takes I took to make it happen which hopefully will be useful for other people that need to Convert and burn Audio CD from MP3 Album.

 

1. First I downloaded the Album in Mp3 format from Torrent tracker

My homeland Bulgaria and specific birth place place the city of Dobrich has been famous its folklore:  Galina Durmushlijska and Stefan Georgiev are just 2 of the many names along with Оркестър Кристал (Orchestra Crystal) and the multitude of gifted singers. My mother has a santiment for Stefan Georgiev, as she listened to this gifted accordinist on her Uncle's marriage.

Thus In my case this was (Стефан Георгиев Хора и ръченици от Добруджа) the album full song list here If you're interested to listen the Album and Enjoy unique Folklore from Dobrudja (Dobrich) my home city, Stefan Georgiev's album Hora and Rachenica Dances is available here

 


Stefan_Georgiev-old-audio-Music-CD-Hora-i-Rychenici-ot-Dobrudja-Horos-and-Ruchenitsas-from-Dobrudja-CD_Cover
I've downloaded them from Bulgarian famous torrent tracker zamunda.net in MP3 format.
Of course you need to have a CD / DVD readed and write device on the PC which nowdays is not present on most modern notebooks and PCs but as a last resort you can buy some cheap External Optical CD / DVD drive for 25 to 30$ from Amazon / Ebay etc.

 

2. You will need to install a couple of programs on Linux host (if you don't have it already)


To be able to convert from command line from MP3 to WAV you will need as minimum ffmpeg and normalize-audio packages as well as some kind of command line burning tool like cdrskin  wodim which is
the fork of old good known cdrecord, so in case if you you're wondering what happened with it just
use instead wodim.

Below is a good list of tools (assuming you have enough HDD space) to install:

 

root@jeremiah:/ # apt-get install –yes dvd+rw-tools cdw cdrdao audiotools growisofs cdlabelgen dvd+rw-tools k3b brasero wodim ffmpeg lame normalize-audio libavcodec58

 

Note that some of above packages I've installed just for other Write / Read operations for DVD drives and you might not need that but it is good to have it as some day in future you will perhaps need to write out a DVD or something.
Also the k3b here is specific to KDE and if you're a GNOME user you could use Native GNOME Desktop app such brasero or if you're in a more minimalistic Linux desktop due to hardware contrains use XFCE's native xfburn program.

If you're a console / terminal geek like me you will definitely enjoy to use cdw
 

root@jeremiah:/ # apt-cache show cdw|grep -i description -A 1
Description-en: Tool for burning CD's – console version
 Ncurses-based frontend for wodim and genisoimage. It can handle audio and

Description-md5: 77dacb1e6c00dada63762b78b9a605d5
Homepage: http://cdw.sourceforge.net/

 

3. Selecting preferred CD / DVD / BD program to use to write out the CD from Linux console


cdw uses wodim (which is a successor of good old known console cdrecord command most of use used on Linux in the past to burn out new Redhat / Debian / different Linux OS distro versions for upgrade purposes on Desktop and Server machines.

To check whether your CD / DVD drive is detected and ready to burn on your old PC issue:

 

root@jeremiah:/# wodim -checkdrive
Device was not specified. Trying to find an appropriate drive…
Detected CD-R drive: /dev/cdrw
Using /dev/cdrom of unknown capabilities
Device type    : Removable CD-ROM
Version        : 5
Response Format: 2
Capabilities   :
Vendor_info    : 'HL-DT-ST'
Identification : 'DVDRAM GT50N    '
Revision       : 'LT20'
Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW.
Using generic SCSI-3/mmc   CD-R/CD-RW driver (mmc_cdr).
Driver flags   : MMC-3 SWABAUDIO BURNFREE
Supported modes: TAO PACKET SAO SAO/R96P SAO/R96R RAW/R16 RAW/R96P RAW/R96R

You can also use xorriso (whose added value compared to other console burn cd tools is is not using external program for ISO9660 formatting neither it use an external or an external burn program for CD, DVD or BD (Blue Ray) drive but it has its own libraries incorporated from libburnia-project.org libs.

Below output is from my Thinkpad T420 notebook. If the old computer CD drive is there and still functional in most cases you should not get issues to detect it.

cdw ncurses text based CD burner tool's interface is super intuitive as you can see from below screenshot:

cdw-burn-cds-from-console-terminal-on-GNU-Linux-and-FreeBSD-old-PC-computer

CDW has many advanced abilities such as “blanking” a disk or ripping an audio CD on a selected folder. To overcome the possible problem of CDW not automatically detecting the disk you have inserted you can go to the “Configuration” menu, press F5 to enter the Hardware options and then on the first entry press enter and choose your device (by pressing enter again). Save the setting with F9.
 

4. Convert MP3 / MP4 Files or whatever format to .WAV to be ready to burn to CD


Collect all the files you want to have collected from the CD album in .MP3 a certain directory and use a small one liner loop to convert files to WAV with ffmpeg:
 

cd /disk/Music/Mp3s/Singer-Album-directory-with-MP3/

for i in $( ls *.mp3); do ffmpeg -i $i $i.wav; done


If you don't have ffmpeg installed and have mpg123 you can also do the Mp3 to WAV conversion with mpg123 cmd like so:

 

for i in $( ls ); do mpg123 -w $i.wav $i.mp3; done


Another alternative for conversion is to use good old lame (used to create Mp3 audio files but abling to also) decode
mp3 to wav.

 

lame –decode somefile.mp3 somefile.wav


In the past there was a burn command tool that was able to easily convert MP3s to WAV but in up2date Linux modern releases it is no longer available most likely due to licensing issues, for those on older Debian Linux 7 / 8 / 9 / Ubuntu 8 to 12.XX / old Fedoras etc. if you have the command you can install burn and use it (and not bother with shell loops):

apt-get install burn

or

yum install burn


Once you have it to convert

 

$ burn -A -a *.mp3
 

 

5. Fix file naming to remove empty spaces such as " " and substitute to underscores as some Old CD Players are
unable to understand spaces in file naming with another short loop.

 

for f in *; do mv "$f" `echo $f | tr ' ' '_'`; done

 

6. Normalize audio produced .WAV files (set the music volume to a certain level)


In case if wondering why normalize audio is needed here is short extract from normalize-audio man page command description to shed some light.

"normalize-audio  is  used  to  adjust  the volume of WAV or MP3 audio files to a standard volume level.  This is useful for things like creating mp3 mixes, where different recording levels on different albums can cause the volume to  vary  greatly from song to song."
 

cd /disk/Music/Mp3s/Singer-Album-directory-with-MP3/

normalize-audio -m *.wav

 

7. Burn the produced normalized Audio WAV files to the the CD

 

wodim -v -fix -eject dev='/dev/sr0' -audio -pad *.wav


Alternatively you can conver all your MP3 files to .WAV with anything be it audacity
or another program or even use 
GNOME's CDBurn tool brasero (if gnome user) or KDE's CDBurn which in my opinion is
the best CD / DVD burning application for Linux K3B.

Burning Audio CD with K3b is up to few clicks and super easy and even k3b is going to handle the MP3 to WAV file Conversion itself. To burn audio with K3B just run it and click over 'New Audio CD Project'.

k3b-on-debian-gnu-linux-burn-audio-cd-screenshot

For those who want to learn a bit more on CD / DVD / Blue-Ray burning on GNU / Linux good readings are:
Linux CD Burning Mini Howto, is Linux's CD Writing Howto on ibiblio (though a bit obsolete) or Debian's official documentation on BurnCD.
 

8. What we learned here


Though the accent of this tutorial was how to Create Audio Music CD from MP3 on GNU / Linux, the same commands are available in most FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD ports tree so you can use the same method to build prepare Audio Music CD on *BSDs.

In this article, we went through few basic ways on how to prepare WAV files from MP3 normalize the new created WAV files on Linux, to prepare files for creation of Audio Music CD for the old mom or grandma's player or even just for fun to rewind some memories. For GUI users this is easily done with  k3b,  brasero or xfburn.

I've pointed you to cdw a super useful text ncurses tool that makes CD Burninng from plain text console (on servers) without a Xorg / WayLand  GUI installed super easy. It was shortly reviewed what has changed over the last few years and why and why cdrecord was substituted for wodim. A few examples were given on how to handle conversion through bash shell loops and you were pointed to some extra reading resources to learn a bit more on the topic.
There are plenty of custom scripts around for doing the same CD Burn / Covnersion tasks, so pointing me to any external / Shell / Perl scripts is mostly welcome.

Hope this learned you something new, Enjoy ! 🙂

Export / Import PuTTY Tunnels SSH Sessions from one to another Windows machine howto

Thursday, January 31st, 2019

Putty-copy-ssh-tunnels-howto-from-one-to-another-windows-machine-3

As I've started on job position – Linux Architect in last November 2018 in Itelligence AG as a contractor (External Service) – a great German company who hires the best IT specialists out there and offers a flexible time schedules for emploees doing various very cool IT advanced operations and Strategic advancement of SAP's Cloud used Technology and Services improvements for SAP SE – SAP S4HANA and HEC (HANA Enterprise Cloud) and been given for work hardware a shiny Lenovo Thinkpad 500 Laptop with Windows 10 OS (SAP pre-installed), I needed to make some SSH Tunnels to machines to (Hop Station / Jump hosts) for that purpose, after some experimenting with MobaXterm Free (Personal Edition 11.0) and the presumable limitations of tunnels of the free client as well as my laziness to add the multiple ssh tunnels to different ssh / rdp / vnc etc. servers, finally I decided to just copy all the tunnels from a colleague who runs Putty and again use the good old Putty – old school Winblows SSH Terminal Client but just for creating the SSH tunnels and for rest use MobaXterm, just like in old times while still employe in Hewlett Packard. For that reason to copy the Tunnels from my dear German Colleague Henry Beck (A good herated collegue who works in field of Storage dealing with NetApps / filer Clusters QNap etc.).

Till that moment I had no idea how copying a saved SSH Tunnels definition is possible, I did a quick research just to find out this is done not with Putty Interface itself but, insetead through dumping Windows Putty Stored Registry records into a File, then transfer to the PC where Tunnels needs to be imported and then again (either double click the registry file) to load it, into registry or use Windows registry editor command line interface reg, here is how:
 

1. Export

 

Run cmd.exe (note below command) 

requires elevated Run as Administrator prompt:

Only sessions:

regedit /e "%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\putty-sessions.reg" HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions

All settings:

regedit /e "%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\putty.reg" HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\SimonTatham

Powershell:

If you have powershell installed on machine, to dump

Only sessions:


 

reg export HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions ([Environment]::GetFolderPath("Desktop") + "\putty-sessions.reg")

All settings:

reg export HKCU\Software\SimonTatham ([Environment]::GetFolderPath("Desktop") + "\putty.reg")


2. Import

Double-click on the 

*.reg

 file and accept the import.

 

Alternative ways:

 

cmd.exe

require elevated command prompt:

regedit /i putty-sessions.reg regedit /i putty.reg

PowerShell:

reg import putty-sessions.reg reg import putty.reg



Below are some things to consider:

Note !do not replace 

SimonTatham

 with your username.

 

Note !: It will create a 

reg

 file on the Desktop of the current user (for a different location modify path)

 

Note !: It will not export your related (old system stored) SSH keys.

What to expect next?

Putty-Tunnels-SSH-Sessions-screenshot-Windows

The result is in Putty you will have the Tunnel sessions loadable when you launch (Portable or installed) Putty version.
Press Load button over the required saved Tunnels list and there you go under

 

Connection SSH -> Tunnels 

 

you will see all the copied tunnels.

Enjoy!

How to install KVM Kernel-based Virtual Machine Virtualization on Linux

Sunday, October 14th, 2018

install-KVM-Kernel-based-Virtual-Machine-virtualization-on-Linux

If you want to run multiple virtual machines on GNU / Linux server or your Linux powered Desktop you have the possibility to use a couple of Virtual Machines just to name a few VirtualBox and VMWare are the option the native way to do it is using the Linux kernel via a loadable kernel module called KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine).
Though Oracle's Virtualbox generally works and you could add new test beds virtual machines (install multiple Linux / *BSD OS) it is not fully Free Software and not even fully open source licensed, VMWare even though superior as a Virtualization product is proprietary and its application costs a lot of money which not each develpoper or small / mid-sized company could afford.

Once the kvm.ko module is loaded your Linux kernel turns into a full-featured Virtual Machine Hypervisor.
Starting with Linux kernel 2.6.X the KVM Hypervisor is available and easy to install virtually all modern Linux distributions Redhat / CentOS Debian / Ubuntu etc. support it and its up to running few commands to install and start using the Power of Kernel embedded Virtualization.

KVM could be used to run in parallel multiple Operating Systems such as Windows / Linux / FreeBSD and others of BSDs family,  each running under a separate virtual machine with its private dedicated (isolated), disc, graphic card, network card etc.

To start up I assume you have already installed some kind of Linux distribution either locally or on a remote dedicated server.
 

1. Installing KVM on Debian GNU / Linux / Ubuntu / Mint and other deb based distros

 

Using APT tool install below packages:

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt install –yes qemu-kvm libvirt-clients libvirt-daemon-system bridge-utils libguestfs-tools genisoimage virtinst libosinfo-bin

 

2. Installing virt-manager GUI to manage Virtual servers

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt-cache show virt-manager|grep -i desc -A 1
Description-en: desktop application for managing virtual machines
 It presents a summary view of running domains and their live performance &

Description-md5: 9f7f584744b77cdacc2291f2a8ac220e
Homepage: http://virt-manager.et.redhat.com/

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt install –yes virt-manager

 


virtual-manager-kvm-gnu-linux-virtual-machines-cpu-hdd-load-statistics-screenshot

 

 

virtual-manager-fedora-28-linux-virtual-machine-settings-screenshot


3. Configure bridged networking to allow access to newly configured VMs

Bridging has to be added via /etc/network/interfaces therefore it is a good idea to create a backup of it before modifying:

 

# cp -rpf /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.bakup-$(echo $(date '+%Y-%m-%d-%H'))

 

# vim /etc/network/interfaces

auto br0
 iface br0 inet static
         address 10.15.44.26
         netmask 255.255.255.192
         broadcast 10.15.44.63
         dns-nameservers 10.0.80.11 10.0.80.12
         # set static route for LAN
      post-up route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 10.18.44.1
      post-up route add -net 161.26.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 10.18.44.1
         bridge_ports eth0
         bridge_stp off
         bridge_fd 0
         bridge_maxwait 0
 
 # br1 setup with static wan IPv4 with ISP router as a default gateway
 auto br1
 iface br1 inet static
         address 192.168.222.51
         netmask 255.255.255.248
         broadcast 192.168.222.55
         gateway 192.168.222.49
         bridge_ports eth1
         bridge_stp off
         bridge_fd 0
         bridge_maxwait 0

 

Once file is saved in vim editor restart the networking.

 

# systemctl restart network.manager

 

To verify whether the bridge has been succesfully upped.

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# brctl show
bridge name    bridge id        STP enabled    interfaces
virbr0        8000.525400cb1cd1    yes        virbr0-nic

 

4. List all installable Virtual OS images
 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virt-builder -list
centos-6                 x86_64     CentOS 6.6
centos-7.0               x86_64     CentOS 7.0
centos-7.1               x86_64     CentOS 7.1
centos-7.2               aarch64    CentOS 7.2 (aarch64)
centos-7.2               x86_64     CentOS 7.2
centos-7.3               x86_64     CentOS 7.3
centos-7.4               x86_64     CentOS 7.4
centos-7.5               x86_64     CentOS 7.5
cirros-0.3.1             x86_64     CirrOS 0.3.1
cirros-0.3.5             x86_64     CirrOS 0.3.5
debian-6                 x86_64     Debian 6 (Squeeze)
debian-7                 sparc64    Debian 7 (Wheezy) (sparc64)
debian-7                 x86_64     Debian 7 (wheezy)
debian-8                 x86_64     Debian 8 (jessie)
debian-9                 x86_64     Debian 9 (stretch)
fedora-18                x86_64     Fedora® 18
fedora-19                x86_64     Fedora® 19
fedora-20                x86_64     Fedora® 20
fedora-21                aarch64    Fedora® 21 Server (aarch64)
fedora-21                armv7l     Fedora® 21 Server (armv7l)
fedora-21                ppc64      Fedora® 21 Server (ppc64)
fedora-21                ppc64le    Fedora® 21 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-21                x86_64     Fedora® 21 Server
fedora-22                aarch64    Fedora® 22 Server (aarch64)
fedora-22                armv7l     Fedora® 22 Server (armv7l)
fedora-22                i686       Fedora® 22 Server (i686)
fedora-22                x86_64     Fedora® 22 Server
fedora-23                aarch64    Fedora® 23 Server (aarch64)
fedora-23                armv7l     Fedora® 23 Server (armv7l)
fedora-23                i686       Fedora® 23 Server (i686)
fedora-23                ppc64      Fedora® 23 Server (ppc64)
fedora-23                ppc64le    Fedora® 23 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-23                x86_64     Fedora® 23 Server
fedora-24                aarch64    Fedora® 24 Server (aarch64)
fedora-24                armv7l     Fedora® 24 Server (armv7l)
fedora-24                i686       Fedora® 24 Server (i686)
fedora-24                x86_64     Fedora® 24 Server
fedora-25                aarch64    Fedora® 25 Server (aarch64)
fedora-25                armv7l     Fedora® 25 Server (armv7l)
fedora-25                i686       Fedora® 25 Server (i686)
fedora-25                ppc64      Fedora® 25 Server (ppc64)
fedora-25                ppc64le    Fedora® 25 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-25                x86_64     Fedora® 25 Server
fedora-26                aarch64    Fedora® 26 Server (aarch64)
fedora-26                armv7l     Fedora® 26 Server (armv7l)
fedora-26                i686       Fedora® 26 Server (i686)
fedora-26                ppc64      Fedora® 26 Server (ppc64)
fedora-26                ppc64le    Fedora® 26 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-26                x86_64     Fedora® 26 Server
fedora-27                aarch64    Fedora® 27 Server (aarch64)
fedora-27                armv7l     Fedora® 27 Server (armv7l)
fedora-27                i686       Fedora® 27 Server (i686)
fedora-27                ppc64      Fedora® 27 Server (ppc64)
fedora-27                ppc64le    Fedora® 27 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-27                x86_64     Fedora® 27 Server
fedora-28                i686       Fedora® 28 Server (i686)
fedora-28                x86_64     Fedora® 28 Server
freebsd-11.1             x86_64     FreeBSD 11.1
scientificlinux-6        x86_64     Scientific Linux 6.5
ubuntu-10.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid)
ubuntu-12.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 12.04 (Precise)
ubuntu-14.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty)
ubuntu-16.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial)
ubuntu-18.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 18.04 (bionic)
opensuse-13.1            x86_64     openSUSE 13.1
opensuse-13.2            x86_64     openSUSE 13.2
opensuse-42.1            x86_64     openSUSE Leap 42.1
opensuse-tumbleweed      x86_64     openSUSE Tumbleweed


5. Create Virtual Machine OS-es from scratch with virt-builder

Below we'll create two images one for Fedora 28 and 1 for Debian 9 using the virt-builder (a tool to build virtual images quickly), the images that could be used are shown through below virt-builder –list command.
 

# iso='fedora-28';
# iso1='debian-9';

 

# sudo virt-builder $iso \
     –size=10G \
     –format qcow2 -o /var/lib/libvirt/images/$iso-vm1.qcow2 \
     –hostname $iso-vm1 \
     –network \
     –timezone Europe/Sofia

 

[   3.3] Downloading: http://libguestfs.org/download/builder/fedora-28.xz
[   5.2] Planning how to build this image
[   5.2] Uncompressing
[  20.8] Resizing (using virt-resize) to expand the disk to 10.0G
[  50.8] Opening the new disk
[  53.7] Setting a random seed
[  53.7] Setting the hostname: fedora-28-vm1
[  53.7] Setting the timezone: Europe/Sofia
[  53.7] Setting passwords
virt-builder: Setting random password of root to YMTkxaJIkEU24Ytf

[  54.7] Finishing off
                   Output file: /var/lib/libvirt/images/fedora-28-vm1.qcow2
                   Output size: 10.0G
                 Output format: qcow2
            Total usable space: 9.3G
                    Free space: 8.2G (87%)

 

# sudo virt-builder $iso1 \
     –size=10G \
     –format qcow2 -o /var/lib/libvirt/images/$iso-vm1.qcow2 \
     –hostname $iso1-vm1 \
     –network \
     –timezone Europe/Sofia

 

[   3.2] Downloading: http://libguestfs.org/download/builder/debian-9.xz
[   4.1] Planning how to build this image
[   4.1] Uncompressing
[  16.9] Resizing (using virt-resize) to expand the disk to 10.0G
[  40.1] Opening the new disk
[  42.9] Setting a random seed
virt-builder: warning: random seed could not be set for this type of guest
[  42.9] Setting the hostname: debian-9-vm1
[  43.6] Setting the timezone: Europe/Sofia
[  43.6] Setting passwords
virt-builder: Setting random password of root to JtzEYGff9KxL5jCR
[  44.3] Finishing off
                   Output file: /var/lib/libvirt/images/debian-9-vm1.qcow2
                   Output size: 10.0G
                 Output format: qcow2
            Total usable space: 9.8G
                    Free space: 9.0G (91%)


vim bridged.xml

<network>
  <name>br0</name>
  <forward mode="bridge"/>
  <bridge name="br0"/>
</network>

 

# sudo virsh net-define –file bridged.xml
# sudo virsh net-autostart br0
# sudo virsh net-start br0

 

Above two commands will download pre-packaged KVM isos and store them inside /var/lib/libvirt/images/ you see also the root (administrator) password for both ISOs printed out.

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# ls -ld /var/lib/libvirt/images/*
-rw-r–r– 1 root         root         10739318784 Oct 12 23:45 /var/lib/libvirt/images/debian-9-vm1.qcow2
-rw-r–r– 1 root         root         10739318784 Oct 12 23:46 /var/lib/libvirt/images/fedora-28-vm1.qcow2

 

To access directly the new created VMs as we have specified the –vnc option it is possible to directly vnc to the new host with VNC client (in linux I use vncviewer), on Windows you can use something like TightVNC.
 

6. Use official Linux distributions ISO boot files to install into KVM VM


Those who would like to run inside KVM VM Linux could do it directly using installable ISO files and install the set of Linux with the required packages, just like installing a fresh new Linux on a bare-metal machine.
To do so download your ISO image from the net (either from official distro website or a mirror website, in case if you need to spin an older version) and use virt-install to run the installer inside KVM.

 

root@jeremiah:~# cd /var/lib/libvirt/boot/;
root@jeremiah:~# wget http://mirrors.netix.net/centos/7.5.1804/isos/x86_64/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso

 

# sudo virt-install \
–virt-type=kvm \
–name centos7 \
–ram 2048 \
–vcpus=2 \
–os-variant=centos7.0 \
–virt-type=kvm \
–hvm \
–cdrom=/var/lib/libvirt/boot/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso \
–network=bridge=br0,model=virtio \
–network=bridge=br1,model=virtio \
–graphics vnc \
–disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/centos7.qcow2,size=40,bus=virtio,format=qcow2


7. List newly created VMs with Virsh command

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virsh list –all
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running
 –     debian9                        shut off

 

The –all parameter lists all available VMs ready to spin, if you want to check what are the VMs that are only running use instead:

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running

 

8. Install Virtual Machine OS-es

Below lines will install 2 Virtual machines one Fedora 28 and Debian 9

 

 os='fedora-28';
virt-install –import –name $os \
    –ram 2048 \
    –vcpu 2 \
    –disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/$os-vm1.qcow2,format=qcow2 \
    –os-variant fedora-unknown \
    –network=bridge=br0,model=virtio \
    –noautoconsole \
  –hvm \
  –graphics vnc

os='debian9';
virt-install –import –name $os     \
–ram 2048     \
–vcpu 2     \
–disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/$os-vm1.qcow2,format=qcow2     \
–os-variant debian9     –network=bridge=br0,model=virtio     \
–noautoconsole \
–hvm \
–graphics vnc


To deploy more just change the virtual machine type in os variable and modify the –os-variant variable to match the distribution name, to get the correct –os-variant variables that can be passed use osinfo-query below is output of the cmd:

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# osinfo-query os
 Short ID             | Name                                               | Version  | ID                                      
———————-+—————————————————-+———-+—————————————–
 altlinux1.0          | Mandrake RE Spring 2001                            | 1.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/1.0        
 altlinux2.0          | ALT Linux 2.0                                      | 2.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.0        
 altlinux2.2          | ALT Linux 2.2                                      | 2.2      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.2        
 altlinux2.4          | ALT Linux 2.4                                      | 2.4      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.4        
 altlinux3.0          | ALT Linux 3.0                                      | 3.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/3.0        
 altlinux4.0          | ALT Linux 4.0                                      | 4.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/4.0        
 altlinux4.1          | ALT Linux 4.1                                      | 4.1      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/4.1        
 altlinux5.0          | ALT Linux 5.0                                      | 5.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/5.0        
 altlinux6.0          | ALT Linux 6.0                                      | 6.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/6.0        
 altlinux7.0          | ALT Linux 7.0                                      | 7.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/7.0        
 centos6.0            | CentOS 6.0                                         | 6.0      | http://centos.org/centos/6.0            
 centos6.1            | CentOS 6.1                                         | 6.1      | http://centos.org/centos/6.1            
 centos6.2            | CentOS 6.2                                         | 6.2      | http://centos.org/centos/6.2            
 centos6.3            | CentOS 6.3                                         | 6.3      | http://centos.org/centos/6.3            
 centos6.4            | CentOS 6.4                                         | 6.4      | http://centos.org/centos/6.4            
 centos6.5            | CentOS 6.5                                         | 6.5      | http://centos.org/centos/6.5            
 centos6.6            | CentOS 6.6                                         | 6.6      | http://centos.org/centos/6.6            
 centos6.7            | CentOS 6.7                                         | 6.7      | http://centos.org/centos/6.7            
 centos6.8            | CentOS 6.8                                         | 6.8      | http://centos.org/centos/6.8            
 centos6.9            | CentOS 6.9                                         | 6.9      | http://centos.org/centos/6.9            
 centos7.0            | CentOS 7.0                                         | 7.0      | http://centos.org/centos/7.0            
 debian1.1            | Debian Buzz                                        | 1.1      | http://debian.org/debian/1.1            
 debian1.2            | Debian Rex                                         | 1.2      | http://debian.org/debian/1.2            
 debian1.3            | Debian Bo                                          | 1.3      | http://debian.org/debian/1.3            
 debian2.0            | Debian Hamm                                        | 2.0      | http://debian.org/debian/2.0            
 debian2.1            | Debian Slink                                       | 2.1      | http://debian.org/debian/2.1            
 debian2.2            | Debian Potato                                      | 2.2      | http://debian.org/debian/2.2            
 debian3              | Debian Woody                                       | 3        | http://debian.org/debian/3              
 debian3.1            | Debian Sarge                                       | 3.1      | http://debian.org/debian/3.1            
 debian4              | Debian Etch                                        | 4        | http://debian.org/debian/4              
 debian5              | Debian Lenny                                       | 5        | http://debian.org/debian/5              
 debian6              | Debian Squeeze                                     | 6        | http://debian.org/debian/6              
 debian7              | Debian Wheezy                                      | 7        | http://debian.org/debian/7              
 debian8              | Debian Jessie                                      | 8        | http://debian.org/debian/8              
 debian9              | Debian Stretch                                     | 9        | http://debian.org/debian/9              
 debiantesting        | Debian Testing                                     | testing  | http://debian.org/debian/testing        
 fedora-unknown       | Fedora                                             | unknown  | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/unknown
 fedora1              | Fedora Core 1                                      | 1        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/1       
 fedora10             | Fedora 10                                          | 10       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/10      
 fedora11             | Fedora 11                                          | 11       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/11      
 fedora12             | Fedora 12                                          | 12       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/12      
 fedora13             | Fedora 13                                          | 13       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/13      
 fedora14             | Fedora 14                                          | 14       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/14      
 fedora15             | Fedora 15                                          | 15       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/15      
 fedora16             | Fedora 16                                          | 16       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/16      
 fedora17             | Fedora 17                                          | 17       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/17      
 fedora18             | Fedora 18                                          | 18       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/18      
 fedora19             | Fedora 19                                          | 19       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/19      
 fedora2              | Fedora Core 2                                      | 2        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/2       
 fedora20             | Fedora 20                                          | 20       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/20      
 fedora21             | Fedora 21                                          | 21       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/21      
 fedora22             | Fedora 22                                          | 22       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/22      
 fedora23             | Fedora 23                                          | 23       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/23      
 fedora24             | Fedora 24                                          | 24       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/24      
 fedora25             | Fedora 25                                          | 25       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/25      
 fedora26             | Fedora 26                                          | 26       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/26      
 fedora3              | Fedora Core 3                                      | 3        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/3       
 fedora4              | Fedora Core 4                                      | 4        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/4       
 fedora5              | Fedora Core 5                                      | 5        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/5       
 fedora6              | Fedora Core 6                                      | 6        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/6       
 fedora7              | Fedora 7                                           | 7        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/7       
 fedora8              | Fedora 8                                           | 8        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/8       
 fedora9              | Fedora 9                                           | 9        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/9       
 freebsd1.0           | FreeBSD 1.0                                        | 1.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/1.0          
 freebsd10.0          | FreeBSD 10.0                                       | 10.0     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.0         
 freebsd10.1          | FreeBSD 10.1                                       | 10.1     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.1         
 freebsd10.2          | FreeBSD 10.2                                       | 10.2     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.2         
 freebsd10.3          | FreeBSD 10.3                                       | 10.3     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.3         
 freebsd10.4          | FreeBSD 10.4                                       | 10.4     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.4         
 freebsd11.0          | FreeBSD 11.0                                       | 11.0     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/11.0         
 freebsd11.1          | FreeBSD 11.1                                       | 11.1     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/11.1         
 freebsd2.0           | FreeBSD 2.0                                        | 2.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.0          
 freebsd2.0.5         | FreeBSD 2.0.5                                      | 2.0.5    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.0.5        
 freebsd2.2.8         | FreeBSD 2.2.8                                      | 2.2.8    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.2.8        
 freebsd2.2.9         | FreeBSD 2.2.9                                      | 2.2.9    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.2.9        
 freebsd3.0           | FreeBSD 3.0                                        | 3.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/3.0          
 freebsd3.2           | FreeBSD 3.2                                        | 3.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/3.2          
 freebsd4.0           | FreeBSD 4.0                                        | 4.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.0          
 freebsd4.1           | FreeBSD 4.1                                        | 4.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.1          
 freebsd4.10          | FreeBSD 4.10                                       | 4.10     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.10         
 freebsd4.11          | FreeBSD 4.11                                       | 4.11     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.11         
 freebsd4.2           | FreeBSD 4.2                                        | 4.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.2          
 freebsd4.3           | FreeBSD 4.3                                        | 4.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.3          
 freebsd4.4           | FreeBSD 4.4                                        | 4.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.4          
 freebsd4.5           | FreeBSD 4.5                                        | 4.5      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.5          
 freebsd4.6           | FreeBSD 4.6                                        | 4.6      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.6          
 freebsd4.7           | FreeBSD 4.7                                        | 4.7      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.7          
 freebsd4.8           | FreeBSD 4.8                                        | 4.8      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.8          
 freebsd4.9           | FreeBSD 4.9                                        | 4.9      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.9          
 freebsd5.0           | FreeBSD 5.0                                        | 5.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.0          
 freebsd5.1           | FreeBSD 5.1                                        | 5.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.1          
 freebsd5.2           | FreeBSD 5.2                                        | 5.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.2          
 freebsd5.2.1         | FreeBSD 5.2.1                                      | 5.2.1    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.2.1        
 freebsd5.3           | FreeBSD 5.3                                        | 5.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.3          
 freebsd5.4           | FreeBSD 5.4                                        | 5.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.4          
 freebsd5.5           | FreeBSD 5.5                                        | 5.5      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.5          
 freebsd6.0           | FreeBSD 6.0                                        | 6.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.0          
 freebsd6.1           | FreeBSD 6.1                                        | 6.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.1          
 freebsd6.2           | FreeBSD 6.2                                        | 6.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.2          
 freebsd6.3           | FreeBSD 6.3                                        | 6.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.3          
 freebsd6.4           | FreeBSD 6.4                                        | 6.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.4          
 freebsd7.0           | FreeBSD 7.0                                        | 7.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.0          
 freebsd7.1           | FreeBSD 7.1                                        | 7.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.1          
 freebsd7.2           | FreeBSD 7.2                                        | 7.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.2          
 freebsd7.3           | FreeBSD 7.3                                        | 7.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.3          
 freebsd7.4           | FreeBSD 7.4                                        | 7.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.4          
 freebsd8.0           | FreeBSD 8.0                                        | 8.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.0          
 freebsd8.1           | FreeBSD 8.1                                        | 8.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.1          
 freebsd8.2           | FreeBSD 8.2                                        | 8.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.2          
 freebsd8.3           | FreeBSD 8.3                                        | 8.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.3          
 freebsd8.4           | FreeBSD 8.4                                        | 8.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.4          
 freebsd9.0           | FreeBSD 9.0                                        | 9.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.0          
 freebsd9.1           | FreeBSD 9.1                                        | 9.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.1          
 freebsd9.2           | FreeBSD 9.2                                        | 9.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.2          
 freebsd9.3           | FreeBSD 9.3                                        | 9.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.3          
 freedos1.2           | FreeDOS 1.2                                        | 1.2      | http://freedos.org/freedos/1.2          
 gnome-continuous-3.10 | GNOME 3.10                                         | 3.10     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.10  
 gnome-continuous-3.12 | GNOME 3.12                                         | 3.12     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.12  
 gnome-continuous-3.14 | GNOME 3.14                                         | 3.14     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.14  
 gnome3.6             | GNOME 3.6                                          | 3.6      | http://gnome.org/gnome/3.6              
 gnome3.8             | GNOME 3.8                                          | 3.8      | http://gnome.org/gnome/3.8              
 macosx10.0           | MacOS X Cheetah                                    | 10.0     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.0            
 macosx10.1           | MacOS X Puma                                       | 10.1     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.1            
 macosx10.2           | MacOS X Jaguar                                     | 10.2     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.2            
 macosx10.3           | MacOS X Panther                                    | 10.3     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.3            
 macosx10.4           | MacOS X Tiger                                      | 10.4     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.4            
 macosx10.5           | MacOS X Leopard                                    | 10.5     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.5            
 macosx10.6           | MacOS X Snow Leopard                               | 10.6     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.6            
 macosx10.7           | MacOS X Lion                                       | 10.7     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.7            
 mageia1              | Mageia 1                                           | 1        | http://mageia.org/mageia/1              
 mageia2              | Mageia 2                                           | 2        | http://mageia.org/mageia/2              
 mageia3              | Mageia 3                                           | 3        | http://mageia.org/mageia/3              
 mageia4              | Mageia 4                                           | 4        | http://mageia.org/mageia/4              
 mageia5              | Mageia 5                                           | 5        | http://mageia.org/mageia/5              
 mageia6              | Mageia 6                                           | 6        | http://mageia.org/mageia/6              
 mandrake10.0         | Mandrake Linux 10.0                                | 10.0     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.0       
 mandrake10.1         | Mandrake Linux 10.1                                | 10.1     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.1       
 mandrake10.2         | Mandrake Linux 10.2                                | 10.2     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.2       
 mandrake5.1          | Mandrake Linux 5.1                                 | 5.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.1        
 mandrake5.2          | Mandrake Linux 5.2                                 | 5.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.2        
 mandrake5.3          | Mandrake Linux 5.3                                 | 5.3      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.3        
 mandrake6.0          | Mandrake Linux 6.0                                 | 6.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/6.0        
 mandrake6.1          | Mandrake Linux 6.1                                 | 6.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/6.1        
 mandrake7.0          | Mandrake Linux 7.0                                 | 7.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.0        
 mandrake7.1          | Mandrake Linux 7.1                                 | 7.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.1        
 mandrake7.2          | Mandrake Linux 7.2                                 | 7.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.2        
 mandrake8.0          | Mandrake Linux 8.0                                 | 8.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.0        
 mandrake8.1          | Mandrake Linux 8.1                                 | 8.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.1        
 mandrake8.2          | Mandrake Linux 8.2                                 | 8.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.2        
 mandrake9.0          | Mandrake Linux 9.0                                 | 9.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.0        
 mandrake9.1          | Mandrake Linux 9.1                                 | 9.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.1        
 mandrake9.2          | Mandrake Linux 9.2                                 | 9.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.2        
 mandriva2006.0       | Mandriva Linux 2006.0                              | 2006.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2006.0     
 mandriva2007         | Mandriva Linux 2007                                | 2007     | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2007       
 mandriva2007.1       | Mandriva Linux 2007 Spring                         | 2007.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2007.1     
 mandriva2008.0       | Mandriva Linux 2008                                | 2008.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2008.0     
 mandriva2008.1       | Mandriva Linux 2008 Spring                         | 2008.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2008.1     
 mandriva2009.0       | Mandriva Linux 2009                                | 2009.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2009.0     
 mandriva2009.1       | Mandriva Linux 2009 Spring                         | 2009.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2009.1     
 mandriva2010.0       | Mandriva Linux 2010                                | 2010.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.0     
 mandriva2010.1       | Mandriva Linux 2010 Spring                         | 2010.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.1     
 mandriva2010.2       | Mandriva Linux 2010.2                              | 2010.2   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.2     
 mandriva2011         | Mandriva Linux 2011                                | 2011     | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2011       
 mbs1.0               | Mandriva Business Server 1.0                       | 1.0      | http://mandriva.com/mbs/1.0             
 mes5                 | Mandriva Enterprise Server 5.0                     | 5.0      | http://mandriva.com/mes/5.0             
 mes5.1               | Mandriva Enterprise Server 5.1                     | 5.1      | http://mandriva.com/mes/5.1             
 msdos6.22            | Microsoft MS-DOS 6.22                              | 6.22     | http://microsoft.com/msdos/6.22         
 netbsd0.8            | NetBSD 0.8                                         | 0.8      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/0.8            
 netbsd0.9            | NetBSD 0.9                                         | 0.9      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/0.9            
 netbsd1.0            | NetBSD 1.0                                         | 1.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.0            
 netbsd1.1            | NetBSD 1.1                                         | 1.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.1            
 netbsd1.2            | NetBSD 1.2                                         | 1.2      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.2            
 netbsd1.3            | NetBSD 1.3                                         | 1.3      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.3            
 netbsd1.4            | NetBSD 1.4                                         | 1.4      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.4            
 netbsd1.5            | NetBSD 1.5                                         | 1.5      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.5            
 netbsd1.6            | NetBSD 1.6                                         | 1.6      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.6            
 netbsd2.0            | NetBSD 2.0                                         | 2.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/2.0            
 netbsd3.0            | NetBSD 3.0                                         | 3.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/3.0            
 netbsd4.0            | NetBSD 4.0                                         | 4.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/4.0            
 netbsd5.0            | NetBSD 5.0                                         | 5.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/5.0            
 netbsd5.1            | NetBSD 5.1                                         | 5.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/5.1            
 netbsd6.0            | NetBSD 6.0                                         | 6.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/6.0            
 netbsd6.1            | NetBSD 6.1                                         | 6.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/6.1            
 netbsd7.0            | NetBSD 7.0                                         | 7.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.0            
 netbsd7.1            | NetBSD 7.1                                         | 7.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.1            
 netbsd7.1.1          | NetBSD 7.1.1                                       | 7.1.1    | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.1.1          
 netware4             | Novell Netware 4                                   | 4        | http://novell.com/netware/4             
 netware5             | Novell Netware 5                                   | 5        | http://novell.com/netware/5             
 netware6             | Novell Netware 6                                   | 6        | http://novell.com/netware/6             
 openbsd4.2           | OpenBSD 4.2                                        | 4.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.2          
 openbsd4.3           | OpenBSD 4.3                                        | 4.3      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.3          
 openbsd4.4           | OpenBSD 4.4                                        | 4.4      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.4          
 openbsd4.5           | OpenBSD 4.5                                        | 4.5      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.5          
 openbsd4.8           | OpenBSD 4.8                                        | 4.8      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.8          
 openbsd4.9           | OpenBSD 4.9                                        | 4.9      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.9          
 openbsd5.0           | OpenBSD 5.0                                        | 5.0      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.0          
 openbsd5.1           | OpenBSD 5.1                                        | 5.1      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.1          
 openbsd5.2           | OpenBSD 5.2                                        | 5.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.2          
 openbsd5.3           | OpenBSD 5.3                                        | 5.3      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.3          
 openbsd5.4           | OpenBSD 5.4                                        | 5.4      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.4          
 openbsd5.5           | OpenBSD 5.5                                        | 5.5      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.5          
 openbsd5.6           | OpenBSD 5.6                                        | 5.6      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.6          
 openbsd5.7           | OpenBSD 5.7                                        | 5.7      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.7          
 openbsd5.8           | OpenBSD 5.8                                        | 5.8      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.8          
 openbsd5.9           | OpenBSD 5.9                                        | 5.9      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.9          
 openbsd6.0           | OpenBSD 6.0                                        | 6.0      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.0          
 openbsd6.1           | OpenBSD 6.1                                        | 6.1      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.1          
 openbsd6.2           | OpenBSD 6.2                                        | 6.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.2          
 opensolaris2009.06   | OpenSolaris 2009.06                                | 2009.06  | http://sun.com/opensolaris/2009.06      
 opensuse-factory     | openSUSE                                           | factory  | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/factory    
 opensuse-unknown     | openSUSE                                           | unknown  | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/unknown    
 opensuse10.2         | openSUSE 10.2                                      | 10.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/10.2       
 opensuse10.3         | openSUSE 10.3                                      | 10.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/10.3       
 opensuse11.0         | openSUSE 11.0                                      | 11.0     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.0       
 opensuse11.1         | openSUSE 11.1                                      | 11.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.1       
 opensuse11.2         | openSUSE 11.2                                      | 11.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.2       
 opensuse11.3         | openSUSE 11.3                                      | 11.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.3       
 opensuse11.4         | openSUSE 11.4                                      | 11.4     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.4       
 opensuse12.1         | openSUSE 12.1                                      | 12.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.1       
 opensuse12.2         | openSUSE 12.2                                      | 12.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.2       
 opensuse12.3         | openSUSE 12.3                                      | 12.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.3       
 opensuse13.1         | openSUSE 13.1                                      | 13.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/13.1       
 opensuse13.2         | openSUSE 13.2                                      | 13.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/13.2       
 opensuse42.1         | openSUSE Leap 42.1                                 | 42.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.1       
 opensuse42.2         | openSUSE Leap 42.2                                 | 42.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.2       
 opensuse42.3         | openSUSE Leap 42.3                                 | 42.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.3       
 opensusetumbleweed   | openSUSE Tumbleweed                                | tumbleweed | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/tumbleweed
 rhel-atomic-7.0      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.0           | 7.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.0       
 rhel-atomic-7.1      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.1           | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.1       
 rhel-atomic-7.2      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.2           | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.2       
 rhel2.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1                       | 2.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1              
 rhel2.1.1            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 1  
/etc/bind/masters/elinvent.com            | 2.1.1    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.1            
 rhel2.1.2            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 2              | 2.1.2    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.2            
 rhel2.1.3            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 3              | 2.1.3    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.3            
 rhel2.1.4            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 4              | 2.1.4    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.4            
 rhel2.1.5            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 5              | 2.1.5    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.5            
 rhel2.1.6            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 6              | 2.1.6    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.6            
 rhel2.1.7            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 7              | 2.1.7    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.7            
 rhel3                | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3                         | 3        | http://redhat.com/rhel/3                
 rhel3.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 1                | 3.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.1              
 rhel3.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 2                | 3.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.2              
 rhel3.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 3                | 3.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.3              
 rhel3.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 4                | 3.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.4              
 rhel3.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 5                | 3.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.5              
 rhel3.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 6                | 3.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.6              
 rhel3.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 7                | 3.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.7              
 rhel3.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 8                | 3.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.8              
 rhel3.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 9                | 3.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.9              
 rhel4.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0                       | 4.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.0              
 rhel4.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.1                       | 4.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.1              
 rhel4.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.2                       | 4.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.2              
 rhel4.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.3                       | 4.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.3              
 rhel4.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.4                       | 4.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.4              
 rhel4.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.5                       | 4.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.5              
 rhel4.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.6                       | 4.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.6              
 rhel4.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.7                       | 4.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.7              
 rhel4.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.8                       | 4.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.8              
 rhel4.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.9                       | 4.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.9              
 rhel5.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0                       | 5.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.0              
 rhel5.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1                       | 5.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.1              
 rhel5.10             | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.10                      | 5.10     | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.10             
 rhel5.11             | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.11                      | 5.11     | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.11             
 rhel5.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2                       | 5.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.2              
 rhel5.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3                       | 5.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.3              
 rhel5.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4                       | 5.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.4              
 rhel5.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5                       | 5.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.5              
 rhel5.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.6                       | 5.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.6              
 rhel5.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7                       | 5.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.7              
 rhel5.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8                       | 5.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.8              
 rhel5.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.9                       | 5.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.9              
 rhel6.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0                       | 6.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.0              
 rhel6.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1                       | 6.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.1              
 rhel6.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2                       | 6.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.2              
 rhel6.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3                       | 6.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.3              
 rhel6.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4                       | 6.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.4              
 rhel6.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5                       | 6.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.5              
 rhel6.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6                       | 6.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.6              
 rhel6.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7                       | 6.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.7              
 rhel6.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.8                       | 6.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.8              
 rhel6.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9                       | 6.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.9              
 rhel7.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0                       | 7.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.0              
 rhel7.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.1                       | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.1              
 rhel7.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2                       | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.2              
 rhel7.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3                       | 7.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.3              
 rhel7.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4                       | 7.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.4              
 rhl1.0               | Red Hat Linux 1.0                                  | 1.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/1.0               
 rhl1.1               | Red Hat Linux 1.1                                  | 1.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/1.1               
 rhl2.0               | Red Hat Linux 2.0                                  | 2.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/2.0               
 rhl2.1               | Red Hat Linux 2.1                                  | 2.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/2.1               
 rhl3.0.3             | Red Hat Linux 3.0.3                                | 3.0.3    | http://redhat.com/rhl/3.0.3             
 rhl4.0               | Red Hat Linux 4.0                                  | 4.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.0               
 rhl4.1               | Red Hat Linux 4.1                                  | 4.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.1               
 rhl4.2               | Red Hat Linux 4.2                                  | 4.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.2               
 rhl5.0               | Red Hat Linux 5.0                                  | 5.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.0               
 rhl5.1               | Red Hat Linux 5.1                                  | 5.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.1               
 rhl5.2               | Red Hat Linux 5.2                                  | 5.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.2               
 rhl6.0               | Red Hat Linux 6.0                                  | 6.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.0               
 rhl6.1               | Red Hat Linux 6.1                                  | 6.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.1               
 rhl6.2               | Red Hat Linux 6.2                                  | 6.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.2               
 rhl7                 | Red Hat Linux 7                                    | 7        | http://redhat.com/rhl/7                 
 rhl7.1               | Red Hat Linux 7.1                                  | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.1               
 rhl7.2               | Red Hat Linux 7.2                                  | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.2               
 rhl7.3               | Red Hat Linux 7.3                                  | 7.3      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.3               
 rhl8.0               | Red Hat Linux 8.0                                  | 8.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/8.0               
 rhl9                 | Red Hat Linux 9                                    | 9        | http://redhat.com/rhl/9                 
 sled10               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10                   | 10       | http://suse.com/sled/10                 
 sled10sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP1               | 10.1     | http://suse.com/sled/10.1               
 sled10sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP2               | 10.2     | http://suse.com/sled/10.2               
 sled10sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP3               | 10.3     | http://suse.com/sled/10.3               
 sled10sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP4               | 10.4     | http://suse.com/sled/10.4               
 sled11               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11                   | 11       | http://suse.com/sled/11                 
 sled11sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP1               | 11.1     | http://suse.com/sled/11.1               
 sled11sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP2               | 11.2     | http://suse.com/sled/11.2               
 sled11sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP3               | 11.3     | http://suse.com/sled/11.3               
 sled11sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP4               | 11.4     | http://suse.com/sled/11.4               
 sled12               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12                   | 12       | http://suse.com/sled/12                 
 sled12sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12 SP1               | 12.1     | http://suse.com/sled/12.1               
 sled12sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12 SP2               | 12.2     | http://suse.com/sled/12.2               
 sled9                | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 9                    | 9        | http://suse.com/sled/9                  
 sles10               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10            
/etc/bind/masters/elinvent.com        | 10       | http://suse.com/sles/10                 
 sles10sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP1                | 10.1     | http://suse.com/sles/10.1               
 sles10sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2                | 10.2     | http://suse.com/sles/10.2               
 sles10sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3                | 10.3     | http://suse.com/sles/10.3               
 sles10sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4                | 10.4     | http://suse.com/sles/10.4               
 sles11               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11                    | 11       | http://suse.com/sles/11                 
 sles11sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1                | 11.1     | http://suse.com/sles/11.1               
 sles11sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2                | 11.2     | http://suse.com/sles/11.2               
 sles11sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3                | 11.3     | http://suse.com/sles/11.3               
 sles11sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4                | 11.4     | http://suse.com/sles/11.4               
 sles12               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12                    | 12       | http://suse.com/sles/12                 
 sles12sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1                | 12.1     | http://suse.com/sles/12.1               
 sles12sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2                | 12.2     | http://suse.com/sles/12.2               
 sles9                | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9                     | 9        | http://suse.com/sles/9                  
 solaris10            | Solaris 10                                         | 10       | http://sun.com/solaris/10               
 solaris11            | Oracle Solaris 11                                  | 11       | http://oracle.com/solaris/11            
 solaris9             | Solaris 9                                          | 9        | http://sun.com/solaris/9                
 ubuntu10.04          | Ubuntu 10.04 LTS                                   | 10.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/10.04          
 ubuntu10.10          | Ubuntu 10.10                                       | 10.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/10.10          
 ubuntu11.04          | Ubuntu 11.04                                       | 11.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/11.04          
 ubuntu11.10          | Ubuntu 11.10                                       | 11.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/11.10          
 ubuntu12.04          | Ubuntu 12.04 LTS                                   | 12.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/12.04          
 ubuntu12.10          | Ubuntu 12.10                                       | 12.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/12.10          
 ubuntu13.04          | Ubuntu 13.04                                       | 13.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/13.04          
 ubuntu13.10          | Ubuntu 13.10                                       | 13.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/13.10          
 ubuntu14.04          | Ubuntu 14.04 LTS                                   | 14.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/14.04          
 ubuntu14.10          | Ubuntu 14.10                                       | 14.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/14.10          
 ubuntu15.04          | Ubuntu 15.04                                       | 15.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/15.04          
 ubuntu15.10          | Ubuntu 15.10                                       | 15.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/15.10          
 ubuntu16.04          | Ubuntu 16.04                                       | 16.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/16.04          
 ubuntu16.10          | Ubuntu 16.10                                       | 16.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/16.10          
 ubuntu17.04          | Ubuntu 17.04                                       | 17.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/17.04          
 ubuntu17.10          | Ubuntu 17.10                                       | 17.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/17.10          
 ubuntu4.10           | Ubuntu 4.10                                        | 4.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/4.10           
 ubuntu5.04           | Ubuntu 5.04                                        | 5.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/5.04           
 ubuntu5.10           | Ubuntu 5.10                                        | 5.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/5.10           
 ubuntu6.06           | Ubuntu 6.06 LTS                                    | 6.06     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/6.06           
 ubuntu6.10           | Ubuntu 6.10                                        | 6.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/6.10           
 ubuntu7.04           | Ubuntu 7.04                                        | 7.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/7.04           
 ubuntu7.10           | Ubuntu 7.10                                        | 7.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/7.10           
 ubuntu8.04           | Ubuntu 8.04 LTS                                    | 8.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/8.04           
 ubuntu8.10           | Ubuntu 8.10                                        | 8.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/8.10           
 ubuntu9.04           | Ubuntu 9.04                                        | 9.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/9.04           
 ubuntu9.10           | Ubuntu 9.10                                        | 9.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/9.10           
 win1.0               | Microsoft Windows 1.0                              | 1.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/1.0            
 win10                | Microsoft Windows 10                               | 10.0     | http://microsoft.com/win/10             
 win2.0               | Microsoft Windows 2.0                              | 2.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2.0            
 win2.1               | Microsoft Windows 2.1                              | 2.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/2.1            
 win2k                | Microsoft Windows 2000                             | 5.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k             
 win2k12              | Microsoft Windows Server 2012                      | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k12           
 win2k12r2            | Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2                   | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k12r2         
 win2k3               | Microsoft Windows Server 2003                      | 5.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k3            
 win2k3r2             | Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2                   | 5.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k3r2          
 win2k8               | Microsoft Windows Server 2008                      | 6.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k8            
 win2k8r2             | Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2                   | 6.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k8r2          
 win3.1               | Microsoft Windows 3.1                              | 3.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/3.1            
 win7                 | Microsoft Windows 7                                | 6.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/7              
 win8                 | Microsoft Windows 8                                | 6.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/8              
 win8.1               | Microsoft Windows 8.1                              | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/8.1            
 win95                | Microsoft Windows 95                               | 4.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/95             
 win98                | Microsoft Windows 98                               | 4.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/98             
 winme                | Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition               | 4.9      | http://microsoft.com/win/me             
 winnt3.1             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.1                    | 3.1      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.1          
 winnt3.5             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.5                    | 3.5      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.5          
 winnt3.51            | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.51                   | 3.51     | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.51         
 winnt4.0             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0                    | 4.0      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/4.0          
 winvista             | Microsoft Windows Vista                            | 6.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/vista          
 winxp                | Microsoft Windows XP                               | 5.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/xp  

 

9. Start / Stop listed KVM Virtual Machine

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh list –all
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running
 –     debian9                        shut off

 

To start debian9 linux virtual machine that is currently off

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh start fedora-28
Domain fedora-28 started

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh start debian9
error: Failed to start domain debian9
error: Requested operation is not valid: network 'default' is not active

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh net-list –all
Name                 State      Autostart     Persistent
———————————————————-
br0                  active     yes           yes
default              inactive   no            yes

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh net-start default
Network default started

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh start debian9
Domain debian9 started

 

10. Attach to running VM with virsh or virt-manager

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 1     fedora-28                      running
 3     debian9                        running

root@jeremiah:~# virsh connect debian9

 


Note that to make the login prompt appear you have to press enter once after the ^] connection string appears


kvm-connect-to-virtual-machine-with-virsh-command-screenshot-howto

An alternative way is to use virt-manager GUI KVM desktop management interface and click over the Virtual Machine Guest name, in same fashion like in VirtualBox.

virtual-manager-virt-manager-screenshot-with-Virtual-Machines-inside-on-Debian-Linux

virt-manager-gui-interface-connect-to-fedora-28-virtual-machine

If you have KVM running on your Linux desktop PC / notebook you can also connect via VNC with virsh command.

 

root@jericho:~# virsh vncdisplay centos7


Another handy thing is to expose the Virtualized Guest OS with VNC in order to be able to connect and manage installation or further Linux configuration via VNC using an SSH Tunnel with port forwarding:

 

$ ssh hipo@pc-freak.net -L 5901:127.0.0.1:5901

 

11.  Start / Shutdown / Suspend / Reboot (safe reboot) a VM guest machine domain

 

 

root@jericho:~# virsh shutdown debian9
root@jericho:~# virsh start fedora-28
root@jericho:~# virsh suspend debian9
root@jericho:~# virsh reboot fedora-28

 

12. Remove / Delete KVM Virtual Machines domain

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh undefine fedora-28
root@jeremiah:~# virsh destroy fedora-28


Closing words


Using KVM to experiment with different OS distributions is really fun just like you can easily run a number of the major most popular Linux Distributions and a set of different versions. It takes few minutes to have a fully functional Linux to play with and it saves a lot of hassles when dealing with GNU / Linux and FreeBSD, doing so in Virtualbox for me prooved to be much more complicated (not to mention that often Virtualbox had an ugly bugs so even Importing an Appliance as a Guest VM with an official distro OS-es failed with weird errors.
One other very practical use of Kerkel-based Virtualization is if you want to run your servers using own Micro-Services architecture (e.g. run multiple Linux OS-es each running a separate Apache / Nginx / MySQL / PostGreSQL / Backup / Storage) etc. all of it running on a single dedicated server or a self-hosted bare-metal
There are plenty of Web Interfaces for Management KVM (proprietary and free software) that could even futher simplify the use and deploy / destory of KVM VMs.
All that makes possible running your own Linux or Web hosting provider a relatively easy task and seriously could cut business expenses and operational (maintenance) costs.

If you plan to run youw own hosting company, I can help you establish your infrastructure and advise you on the right technologies to use.

 

Virtualbox Shared folder set up on Linux between Host and Guest OS – Set up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host to Guest

Wednesday, September 12th, 2018

mount-shares-between-host-OS-and-guest-virtual-machine-howto-virtualbox-vbox-logo

How to set-up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host  and Guest Virtualized OS?

Running VirtualBox Host is an easy thing to set-up across all Operating Systems.  Once you have it sooner or later you will need to copy files from the VM Host OS (that in my case is GNU / Linux) to the virtualized Guest operating system (again in my case that's again another Linux ISO running indide the Virtual Machine).

Below are steps to follow To use Virtualbox Shared Folder functionality to copy files between VBox and your Desktop / server Linux install.

1. Install Virtualbox Guest Additions CD Image ISO

I've explained how to add the Guest Additions CD image thoroughfully in my previous article Howto enable Copy / Paste Virtualbox betwen Linux guest and Host OS
Anyways I'll repeat myself below for sake of clarity:

To do so use Oracle VBox menus (on the booted virtualized OS VBox window):

 

Devices -> Insert Guest additions CD Image

 

Mount the ISO inside the Linux Virtual Machine:

root@debian:~# mount /media/cdrom1/
 

If the mount fails and there are no files inside the mount point it might be because the virtualbox-dkms and virtualbox-guest-dkms packages might be missing on the Host OS.

To install them (on Debian GNU / Linux) assuming that you're using virtualbox default distro packages /etc/apt/sources.list :
 

apt-get install –yes -qq virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-guest-dkms


and run:

 

root@debian:/media/cdrom1# cd /media/cdrom1; sh VBoxLinuxAdditions.run


2. Create directory for Shared Folder that will be used to access Host / OS files from the Guest Virtualized OS
 

root@debian:~# mkdir /mnt/shared_folder

 

3. Map from VBox program interface Shared folder settings and Mount /mnt/shared_folder location

virtualbox-virtual-machine-devices-shared-folders-shared-folder-settings-linux-screenshot

 

Devices -> Shared Folder -> Shared Folder settings -> Transient Folders (click blue folder add small button right)

 

From Transient Folders add whatever directory you want to be shared from your local notebook / PC to the VM.

virtualbox-devices-Shared-Folder-Add-Shared-Folder-add-share-linux-screenshotDepending on whether you would like to mount the shared folder only for reading files (choose Read Only) to make it a permanent shared folder (and not just for the one session of current running Virtual Machine until its killed use Make Permanent) or check Auto-Mount tick if you want the shared_folder mapping to be mounted on every VM boot.

Once the shared_folder directory location is set-up from GUI menu click OK and in order for the settings to take effect, you'll need to restart the VM Guest with Linux (use halt command from terminal) or Power Off the Machine via the VBox menus.

To mount use command like:

mount -t vboxsf name_of_folder_linked_from_vbox  /mnt/name_folder_guest_os/


mount-vboxsf-shared-folder-mnt-shared-linux-guest-screenshot

In my case I wanted to share home folder /home so the command I used is:

root@debian:~# mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder


If everything is fine your Host OS file content from /home will be visible (for read and write if you Mapped it so) 
under /mnt/shared_folder …

And as Turtles Ninja used to heavily say Cowabunga !!! 🙂
You have it mounted and ready for file share between Desktop -> Virtualized OS.

 

Bear in mind that above mount command has to run as root (superuser) to succeed.

You now could copy files from your Host OS (running the Virtual Machine) and the Guest OS (Virtualized OS) using /mnt/shared_folder mount point without problems.

The example is if you want to share files between VirtualBox installed Linux and the Guest (Desktop / server) OS, however at many cases mounting your Host OS directory for root users might be not very practical but, instead you might prefer to do the mount for specific non admin user, for example I prefer to do the shared folder mount with my pointed non-root username hipo.

Here is how to do above VM shared_folder mount for non-root user:

First you need to know the exact UID / GID (User ID / Group ID) of user, you can get that with id command:

 

hipo@linux:~$  id
uid=1000(hipo) gid=1000(hipo) groups=1000(hipo),24(cdrom),25(floppy),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),108(netdev),114(bluetooth),115(lpadmin),119(scanner)

 

As you see UID / GID in my case are 1000 / 1000

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf -o rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

mount-virtual-box-shared_folder-with-non-administration-permissions-non-root-permissions-id-and-mount-command-screenshot-linux


4. Mounting configured shared_folder to automatically mount into the Guest OS Linux on every boot

a) Configuring shared_folder auto-mount using /etc/rc.local

If you need the shared_folder to automatically mount next-time you boot the virtual machine quickest way is to add the mount command to /etc/rc.local (on Debian 8 and Debian 9 and newer Ubuntu Linuxes rc.local is missing by default to enable it to work like it worked before read follow my previous article ).

b) Configuring auto-mount for shared_folder through /etc/fstab

The more professional way to auto-mount on emulated OS VM boot time,  you could add the vboxsf mount definitions to /etc/fstab with your favourite text-editor mcedit, nano, joe etc. … (for me that's vim).

Syntax of /etc/fstab is as follows:
 

<Device> <Mount Point> <Type> <Options> <Dump> <Pass>

root@linux:~# vim /etc/fstab

 

shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0 0

Note that you will want to change 1000 / 1000, id / gid with the ones of the non-admin user you would like to add to mount it for.

A quick way to add it to /etc/fstab with a shell one-liner is with command
 

root@linux:~# echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0  0' >> /etc/fstab

An alternative way to add a user to have permissions for vboxsf file system (without specifying the long -o uid=1000,gid=1000 options is to simply add the username in question to group vboxsf like so:

c) Adding non super user username to vboxsf group

root@linux:~# usermod -G vboxsf hipo
root@linux:~# grep -i vboxsf /etc/group
vboxsf:x:999:hipo

 

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

without the extra arguments and the options to pass to /etc/fstab (for eventual requirement to auto mount the shared_folder) would be more simple e.g.:

 

echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf ' >> /etc/fstab

 

One note to make here is if the uesr is added to vboxsf the line for /etc/fstab to auto mount to mount for root user and non-root will be identical.

Then you can get the /etc/fstab auto-mount configured tested by running:

c) Checking auto-mount is working

hipo@linux:~# mount -a
hipo@linux:~# mount |grep -i vboxsf
shared_folder on /mnt/shared_folder type vboxsf (rw,nodev,relatime)


5. What if you end up with mounting failed errors ? – What might be causing the mounting failed Protocol error (a few things to check to solve)


In case of troubles with the mount you might get an error like:

hipo@linux:~# mount -t vboxsf  share_folder /mnt/shared_folder

/sbin/mount.vboxsf: mounting failed with the error: Protocol error


This error might be caused because of Insert Guest Additions CD Image might be not properly enabled and installed using the ISO provided VBoxLinuxAdditions.sh shell script.
Other common reason you might get this error if you have mistyped the Folder name: given in Shared Folders -> Folder Path -> Add Share for example I have given shared_folder as a Map name but as you can see in above mount -t vboxsf, I've mistyped share_folder instead of the correct one shared_folder inserted.
In some VBox releases this error was caused by bugs in the Virtual Machine.
 

virtualbox-virtual-machine-shared-folder-transient-folder-add-folder-linux-VM-guest-linux

One useful tip is to be able to check whether a Virtualbox Virtual Machine has a configured shared_folder (if you're logging to manage the machine on remote server – nomatter whether you have logged in with VNC / Teamviewer / Citrix etc. or via SSH session.

To do so use VBoxControl as of time of writting usually located on most distributions under (/usr/bin/VBoxControl)
 

 

hipo@linux:~# VBoxControl sharedfolder list -automount
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Auto-mounted Shared Folder mappings (0):

No Shared Folders available.

You can use VBoxControl command to get set and list a number of settings on the VBox VM, here is an useful example with it where you get information about numerous VBox info values:

 

root@linux:~# VBoxControl guestproperty enumerate
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Product, value: Linux, timestamp: 1536681633430852000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/IP, value: 10.0.2.15, timestamp: 1536681633438717000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/GUI/LanguageID, value: en_US, timestamp: 1536697521395621000, flags: RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/MAC, value: 08002762FA1C, timestamp: 1536681633442120000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/ServicePack, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681633431259000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVerExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002646000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Netmask, value: 255.255.255.0, timestamp: 1536681633440157000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Version, value: #1 SMP Debian 4.9.110-3+deb9u2 (2018-08-13), timestamp: 1536681633431125000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/VersionExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431582000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Revision, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681633432515000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepExec, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002355000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsers, value: 1, timestamp: 1536681673447293000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Status, value: Up, timestamp: 1536681633443911000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Name, value: enp0s3, timestamp: 1536681633445302000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepArgs, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002387000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Version, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431419000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxRev, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681619002668000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Broadcast, value: 10.0.2.255, timestamp: 1536681633439531000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVer, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002613000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsersList, value: hipo, timestamp: 1536681673446498000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/Count, value: 1, timestamp: 1536698949773993000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Release, value: 4.9.0-7-amd64, timestamp: 1536681633431001000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/NoLoggedInUsers, value: false, timestamp: 1536681673447965000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/HostVerLastChecked, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681702832389000, flags: <NULL>

Hope you enjoyed ! Have phun! 🙂