Archive for the ‘AIX’ Category

Find largest files on AIX system root / show biggest files and directories in AIX folder howto

Friday, November 6th, 2020

Reading Time: 3minutes

ibm-aix-logo-find-largest-files-and-directories-on-system-to-free-space-if-disk-is-full

On an AIX server if you get a root directory ( /) to be completely full problem and the AIX running services are unable to write their pid files and logs for example in /tmp /admin /home /var/tmp /var/log/ and rest of directory structure or the system is almost full with mounted filesystems which shows it is 90% or 95%+ full on main partition,  the system is either already stuck or it is on the way to stop functiononing normally. Hence the only way to recover IBM AIX machine to a normal behavior is to clean up some files (if you can't extend the partition) or add more physical Hard drive, just as we usually do on Linux.

So How can we clean up largest files on AIX?


Lets say we want to find all files on AIX larger than 1 MB.

aix-system:/ $ find / -xdev -size 2048 -ls | sort -r +6
12579 1400 -rw-r—–  1 root      security   1433534 Jun 26  2019 /etc/security/tsd/tsd.dat
 9325 20361 -rw-r—–  1 root      system    20848752 Nov  6 16:02 /etc/security/failedlogin
21862 7105 -rwxr-xr-x  1 root      system     7274915 Aug 24  2017 /sbin/zabbix_agentd
   72 7005 -rw-rw—-  1 root      system     7172962 Nov  6 16:19 /audit/stream.out
24726 2810 -rw——-  1 root      system     2876944 Feb 29  2012 /etc/syslog-ng/core
29314 2391 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     2447454 Jun 25  2019 /lpp/bos/bos.rte.filesystem/7.1.5.32.save/update.16
21844 2391 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     2447414 Jun 25  2019 /sbin/helpers/jfs2/logredo64
21843 2219 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     2271971 Jun 25  2019 /sbin/helpers/jfs2/logredo
29313 2218 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     2270835 Jun 25  2019 /lpp/bos/bos.rte.filesystem/7.1.5.32.save/update.15
22279 1800 -rw-r–r–  1 root      system     1843200 Nov  4 08:03 /root/smit.log
12577 1399 -rw-r–r–  1 root      system     1431685 Jun 26  2019 /etc/security/tsd/.tsd.bk
21837 1325 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     1356340 Jun 25  2019 /sbin/helpers/jfs2/fsck64
29307 1325 -r-xr-xr-x  1 root      system     1356196 Jun 25  2019 /lpp/bos/bos.rte.filesystem/7.1.5.32.save/update.9
   12 1262 -rw——-  1 root      system     1291365 Aug  8  2011 /core

 

Above finds all files greater than 1 MB and sort them in reverse
order with the largest files first.

To search all files larger than 64 Megabytes under root ( / )

aix-system:/ $ find / -xdev -size +131072 -ls | sort -r +6
65139 97019 -rw-r–r–  1 root      system    99347181 Mar 31  2017 /admin/archive.zip


Display 10 largest directories on system

aix-system:/ $ du -a /dir | sort -n -r | head -10


Show biggest files and directories in a directory

 

aix-system:/ $ du -sk * | sort -n
4       Mail
4       liste
4       my_user
4       syslog-ng.conf
140     smit.script
180     smit.transaction
1804    smit.log

Below du display the size of all files and directories in the current directory with the biggest being at the bottom.

 

List all largest files in dir decrasingly. If a directory is matches show all sub-dirs largest files.

aix-system:/ $ ls -A . | while read name; do du -sk $name; done | sort -nr

Below ls + while loop command sorts disk usage for all files in the current directory by size, in decreasing order. If the file we suspect happens to be a directory, we can then change into that directory, and re-run the preceding command to determine what is taking up space within that directory.

Continue these steps until you find the desired file or files, at which point you can take appropriate actions.

If the bottom-most item is a directory, then cd into that directory and run the du command again. Keep drilling down until you find the biggest files on your system and get rid of them to save some space.

How to check how many processor and volume groups IBM AIX eServer have

Monday, July 13th, 2020

Reading Time: 8minutes

how-many-cpus-are-on-commands-Linux-sysadmin-and-user-show-know-AIX-logo
In daily sysadmin duties I have been usually administrating GNU / Linux or FreeBSD servers.
However now in my daily sysadmin jobs I've been added to do some minor sysadmin activities on  a few IBM AIX eServers UNIX machines.

As the eServers were completely unknown to me and I logged in for a first time I needed a way to get idea on what kind of hardware I'm logging in so I wanted to get information about the Central Processing UNIT CPUs on the host.

On Linux I'm used to do a cat /proc/cpuinfo or do dmidecode etc. to get the number of CPUs, however AIX does not have /proc/cpuinfo and has its own way to get information about the system hardware.
As I've red in the IBM AIX's RedBook to get system information on AIX there is the lscfg command.
 

aix:/# lscfg
INSTALLED RESOURCE LIST

The following resources are installed on the machine.
+/- = Added or deleted from Resource List.
*   = Diagnostic support not available.

  Model Architecture: chrp
  Model Implementation: Multiple Processor, PCI bus

+ sys0                                                            System Object
+ sysplanar0                                                      System Planar
* vio0                                                            Virtual I/O Bus
* vscsi3           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C21-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* vscsi2           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C20-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* vscsi1           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C11-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* hdisk1           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C11-T1-L8100000000000000  Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* vscsi0           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C10-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* hdisk0           U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C10-T1-L8100000000000000  Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* ent3             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C5-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent2             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C4-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent1             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C3-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent0             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C2-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* vsa0             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C0                        LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
* vty0             U8205.E6B.068D6AP-V4-C0-L0                     Asynchronous Terminal
+ L2cache0                                                        L2 Cache
+ mem0                                                            Memory
+ proc0                                                           Processor
+ proc4                                                           Processor


To get the number of processors on the host I've had to use:

 

aix:/# lscfg|grep -i proc
  Model Implementation: Multiple Processor, PCI bus
+ proc0                                                           Processor
+ proc4                                                           Processor


Another way to get the CPU number is with:

aix:/# lsdev -C -c processor
proc0 Available 00-00 Processor
proc4 Available 00-04 Processor

 

aix:/# lsattr -EH -l proc4
attribute   value          description           user_settable

 

frequency   3720000000     Processor Speed       False
smt_enabled true           Processor SMT enabled False
smt_threads 4              Processor SMT threads False
state       enable         Processor state       False
type        PowerPC_POWER7 Processor type        False

aix:/# lsattr -EH -l proc0
attribute   value          description           user_settable

 

frequency   3720000000     Processor Speed       False
smt_enabled true           Processor SMT enabled False
smt_threads 4              Processor SMT threads False
state       enable         Processor state       False
type        PowerPC_POWER7 Processor type        False


As you can see each of the processor is multicore has 2 Cores and each of the cores have for Threads, to get the overall number of CPUs on the system including the threaded Virtual CPUs:

aix:/# bindprocessor -q
The available processors are:  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


This specific machine has overall of 8 CPUs cores.

lscfg can be used to get various useful other info of the iron:

aix:/# lscfg -s
INSTALLED RESOURCE LIST

 

The following resources are installed on the machine.
+/- = Added or deleted from Resource List.
*   = Diagnostic support not available.

  Model Architecture: chrp
  Model Implementation: Multiple Processor, PCI bus

+ sys0
        System Object
+ sysplanar0
        System Planar
* vio0
        Virtual I/O Bus
* vscsi3           U8305…………….
        Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* vscsi2           U8305…………….
        Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* vscsi1           U8305…………….
        Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* hdisk1           U8305…………….
        Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* vscsi0           U8305……………..
        Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
* hdisk0           U8305…………….
        Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
* ent3             U8305…………….
        Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent2             U8305.E6B…………….
        Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent1             U8305.E6B…………….
        Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* ent0             U8305.E6B…………….
        Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
* vsa0             U8305.E7B…………….
        LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
* vty0             U8305.E7B…………….
        Asynchronous Terminal
+ L2cache0
        L2 Cache
+ mem0
        Memory
+ proc0
        Processor
+ proc4
        Processor

aix:/# lscfg -p
INSTALLED RESOURCE LIST

The following resources are installed on the machine.

  Model Architecture: chrp
  Model Implementation: Multiple Processor, PCI bus

  sys0                                                            System Object
  sysplanar0                                                      System Planar
  vio0                                                            Virtual I/O Bus
  vscsi3           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
  vscsi2           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                     Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
  vscsi1           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
  hdisk1           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1-L8500000000000000  Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
  vscsi0           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                    Virtual SCSI Client Adapter
  hdisk0           U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1-L8500000000000000  Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
  ent3             U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
  ent2             U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
  ent1             U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
  ent0             U8305.E7B…………….V6-C40-T1                     Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
  vsa0             U8305.E7B.069D7AP-V5-C1                        LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
  vty0             U8305.E7B.069D7AP-V5-D1-L0                     Asynchronous Terminal
  L2cache0                                                        L2 Cache
  mem0                                                            Memory
  proc0                                                           Processor
  proc4                                                           Processor

  PLATFORM SPECIFIC

  Name:  IBM,8305-E7B
    Model:  IBM,8305-E7B
    Node:  /
    Device Type:  chrp

  Name:  openprom
    Model:  IBM,AL730_158
    Node:  openprom

  Name:  interrupt-controller
    Model:  IBM, Logical PowerPC-PIC, 00
    Node:  interrupt-controller@0
    Device Type:  PowerPC-External-Interrupt-Presentation

  Name:  vty
    Node:  vty@30000000
    Device Type:  serial
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  l-lan
    Node:  l-lan@30000002
    Device Type:  network
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  l-lan
    Node:  l-lan@30000003
    Device Type:  network
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  l-lan
    Node:  l-lan@30000004
    Device Type:  network
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  l-lan
    Node:  l-lan@30000005
    Device Type:  network
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  v-scsi
    Node:  v-scsi@3000005a
    Device Type:  vscsi
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  v-scsi
    Node:  v-scsi@3000005b
    Device Type:  vscsi
    Physical Location: …………………………………………..

  Name:  v-scsi
    Node:  v-scsi@30000014
    Device Type:  vscsi
    Physical Location: ………………………………..

  Name:  v-scsi
    Node:  v-scsi@30000017
    Device Type:  vscsi
    Physical Location: …………………………………

 


Another useful command I found is to list the equivalent of Linux's LVM Logical Volumes configured on the system, below is how:

aix:/# lspv hdisk0
00f68c6a84acb0d5 rootvg active hdisk1 00f69d6a85400468 dsvg active

To get more info on a volume group:

aix:/# lspv hdisk0 PHYSICAL VOLUME: hdisk0 VOLUME GROUP: rootvg PV IDENTIFIER: 00f68d6a85acb0d5 VG IDENTIFIER 00f68d6a00004c0000000131353444a5 PV STATE: active STALE PARTITIONS: 0 ALLOCATABLE: yes PP SIZE: 32 megabyte(s) LOGICAL VOLUMES: 12 TOTAL PPs: 959 (30688 megabytes) VG DESCRIPTORS: 2 FREE PPs: 493 (15776 megabytes) HOT SPARE: no USED PPs: 466 (14912 megabytes) MAX REQUEST: 256 kilobytes FREE DISTRIBUTION: 191..00..00..110..192 USED DISTRIBUTION: 01..192..191..82..00 MIRROR POOL: None


You can get which local configured partition is set on which ( PV )Physical Volume

aix:/# lspv -l hdisk0
hdisk0:
LV NAME               LPs     PPs     DISTRIBUTION          MOUNT POINT
lg_dumplv             64      64      00..64..00..00..00    N/A
hd8                   1       1       00..00..01..00..00    N/A
hd6                   16      16      00..16..00..00..00    N/A
hd2                   166     166     00..45..89..32..00    /usr
hd4                   29      29      00..11..18..00..00    /
hd3                   40      40      00..04..04..32..00    /tmp
hd9var                55      55      00..00..37..18..00    /var
hd10opt               74      74      00..37..37..00..00    /opt
hd1                   8       8       00..07..01..00..00    /home
hd5                   1       1       01..00..00..00..00    N/A

How to check if shared library is loaded in AIX OS – Fix missing libreadline.so.7

Thursday, February 20th, 2020

Reading Time: 2minutes

ibm-aix-logo1

I've had to find out whether an externally Linux library is installed  on AIX system and whether something is not using it.
The returned errors was like so:

 

# gpg –export -a

Could not load program gpg:
Dependent module /opt/custom/lib/libreadline.a(libreadline.so.7) could not be loaded.
Member libreadline.so.7 is not found in archive


After a bit of investigation, I found that gpg was failing cause it linked to older version of libreadline.so.6, the workaround was to just substitute the newer version of libreadline.so.7 over the original installed one.

Thus I had a plan to first find out whether this libreadline.a is loaded and recognized by AIX UNIX first and second find out whether some of the running processes is not using that library.
I've come across this interesting IBM official documenation that describes pretty good insights on how to determine whether a shared library  is currently loaded on the system. which mentions the genkld command that is doing
exactly what I needed.

In short:
genkld – creates a list that is printed to the console that shows all loaded shared libraries

genkld-screenshot-aix-unix

Next I used lsof (list open files) command to check whether there is in real time opened libraries by any of the running programs on the system.

After not finding anything and was sure the library is neither loaded as a system library in AIX nor it is used by any of the currently running AIX processes, I was sure I could proceed to safely overwrite libreadline.a (libreadline.so.6) with libreadline.a with (libreadline.so.7).

The result of that is again a normally running gpg as ldd command shows the binary is again normally linked to its dependend system libraries.
 

aix#ldd /usr/bin/gpg
/usr/bin/gpg needs:
         /usr/lib/threads/libc.a(shr.o)
         /usr/lib/libpthreads.a(shr_comm.o)
         /usr/lib/libpthreads.a(shr_xpg5.o)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libintl.a(libintl.so.1)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libreadline.a(libreadline.so.7)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libiconv.a(libiconv.so.2)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libz.a(libz.so.1)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libbz2.a(libbz2.so.1)
         /unix
         /usr/lib/libcrypt.a(shr.o)
         /opt/freeware/lib/libiconv.a(shr4.o)
         /usr/lib/libcurses.a(shr42.o)

 

 

# gpg –version
gpg (GnuPG) 1.4.22
Copyright (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

 

Home: ~/.gnupg
Supported algorithms:
Pubkey: RSA, RSA-E, RSA-S, ELG-E, DSA
Cipher: IDEA, 3DES, CAST5, BLOWFISH, AES, AES192, AES256, TWOFISH,
        CAMELLIA128, CAMELLIA192, CAMELLIA256
Hash: MD5, SHA1, RIPEMD160, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512, SHA224
Compression: Uncompressed, ZIP, ZLIB, BZIP2