sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as
recorded in the
acct file. In addition, it condenses this data
savacct summary file, which contains the
number of times the command was called and the system resources used.
The information can also be summarized on a per-user basis;
will save this information into
sa [opts] [file]
If no arguments are specified,
sa will print information about
all of the commands in the
acct file. If command
names have unprintable characters, or are only called once,
will sort them into a group called
***other. Overall totals for
each field are gathered and printed with a blank command name.
If called with a file name as the last argument,
sa will use that
file instead of
sa will sort the output by sum of user and system
The output fields are labeled as follows:
sum of system and user time in cpu seconds
“real time” in cpu seconds
cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units
average number of I/O operations per execution
total number of I/O operations
cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)
user cpu time in cpu seconds
system time in cpu seconds
Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the
table, but after each numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every
row. For example, you might see
79.29re, meaning 79.29 cpu
seconds of “real time.”
An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but
The availability of these program options depends on your operating
system. In specific, the members that appear in the
of your system’s process accounting header file (usually
determine which flags will be present. For example, if your system’s
struct acct doesn’t have the
ac_mem field, the installed
sa will not support the
In short, all of these flags may not be available on your machine.
sa not to sort those command names with unprintable
characters and those used only once into the ‘
Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by the number of calls.
Print percentages of total time for the command’s user, system, and real time values.
Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O operations.
When using the
--threshold option, assume that all answers to
interactive queries will be affirmative.
Don’t read the information in
Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print seconds per call.
Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two are
added together and listed as
Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a per-user basis.
Sort the output by the number of calls. This is the default sorting method.
Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps.
Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps divided by the number of calls.
Sort output items in reverse order.
Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files
For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of system and
user times. If the sum of system and user times is too small to
report—the sum is zero—
*ignore* will appear in this field.
For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and command name. After printing all entries, quit. Note: this flag supersedes all others.
Print commands which were executed num times or fewer and await a
reply from the terminal. If the response begins with
y, add the
command to the
It really doesn’t make any sense to me that the stock version of
sa separates statistics for a particular executable depending on
whether or not that command forked. Therefore, GNU
sa lumps this
information together unless this option is specified.
Sort the output by the “real time” (elapsed time) for each command.
Use this flag to tell the program what
AHZ should be (in hertz).
This option is useful if you are trying to view an
created on another machine which has the same byte order and file format
as your current machine, but has a different value for
Print verbose internal information.
sa’s version number.
sa’s usage string and default locations of system files to
Note: if more than one sorting option is specified, the list will be sorted by the one specified last on the command line.
I haven’t been able to test this on many different machines because the data files grow so big in a short time; our sysadmin would rather save the disk space.
Most versions of
sa that I’ve tested don’t pay attention to flags
--sort-num-calls when printing
out commands when combined with the
--print-users flags. GNU
sa pays attention to these flags
if they are applicable.
The average memory use is stored as a short rather than a double, so we
suffer from round-off errors. GNU
sa uses double the whole way